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Summaira Riaz, Alan C. Tenscher, Brady P. Smith, Daniel A. Ng, and M. Andrew Walker

whether these taxa are best considered subgenera or sections ( Liberty Hyde Bailey Horitorium, 1976 ). Muscadinia species possess very strong resistance to grape pests and diseases ( Olmo, 1986 ), which prompted efforts to cross Muscadinia rotundifolia

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Shanshan Cao, Stephen Stringer, Gunawati Gunawan, Cecilia McGregor, and Patrick J. Conner

, the subgenus Muscadinia is much smaller and consists of only two identified species: V. rotundifolia and V . popenoei ( Wen, 2007 ). V. munsoniana , once considered a third species within Muscadinia ( Husmann and Dearing, 1916 ), was recently

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Patrick J. Conner, Gunawati Gunawan, and John R. Clark

The genus Vitis L. contains two subgenera, Euvitis (bunch grapes) and Muscadinia (muscadine grapes). Muscadinia consists of just three species: V. rotundifolia , the common muscadine grape known throughout the southeastern United States

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Patrick J. Conner and Dan MacLean

The genus Vitis L. contains two subgenera, Euvitis Planch. (bunch grapes) and Muscadinia (muscadine grapes). The Muscadinia subgenera consists of just three species: V. rotundifolia , the common muscadine grape known throughout the

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Jiang Lu and Bernard Prins

The grape belongs to the genus Vitis L., which are divided into two subgenera, Euvitis Planch. and Muscadinia Planch. The Euvitis has 50 to 70 species, in which V. vinifera L. is a predominant species with hundreds of known commercial cultivars grown world wide. The Muscadinia (muscadine grapes) consists of only two to three species predominated by V. rotundifolia and only commercially cultivated in the southeastern United States. V. rotundifolia is known by its multiple resistance to almost all grape diseases and insects found on the Euvitis species, while the latter possesses good fruit characteristics that do not exist in muscadines. Attempts to produce rotundifolia-vinifera hybrids to combine good fruit quality and disease resistance of both into F1 hybrids have been made by grape breeders for many years. Limited success was reported when the V. vinifera was used as seed parents. This research extended the interspecific crosses beyond V. vinifera into other Euvitis species. Among the Euvitis species, A. aestivalis, V. cinerea, V. champinii, V. labrusca, V. monticola, V. nesbittiana, V. riparia, V. rupestris, V. thunbergii, V. quinguangularis, all with pistillate flowers, were used as female parents pollinated with V. rotundifolia pollen. Eight out of the 10 cross combinations except V. cinerea and V. thunbergii set fruits. However, most of the Euvitis-rotundifolia crosses had extremely low fruits set (<1% of pollinated flowers). The only exception was V. labrusca cv. Woodruff, which had very high percentage of fruit set (70%). Interestingly, the fruits of V. labrusca cv. Woodruff × rotundifolia were pathonocarpic that had only half size of regular fruits set from open pollination with pollen sources from other Euvitis species. In the reciprocal crosses, three pistillate V. rotundifolia cultivars, `Fry', `Higgins', `Jumbo', were used as female pollinated by pollen from Euvitis species. Limited fruit sets were found from the crosses of V. rotundifolia × V. shuttleworthii, V. cordifolia, V. rupestris, V. Piasezkii, V. quinquagularis. Results from this study indicated that hybridization between Euvitis and muscadinia species is indeed very difficult but it is possible, and some Euvitis species are cross more compatible with V. rotundifolia than the others.

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Jiang Lu and Olusola Lamikanra

Fluorescence microscopy was used to examine the unilateral intersubgeneric incongruity of muscadine grape (Muscadinia Planch.) × bunch grape (Euvitis Planch.). Pollen grains of bunch grape hydrated and germinated on the stigmas of muscadine grape. Healthy pollen tubes of the bunch grape also penetrated the stigma and entered into the style without obstacles. However, most bunch grape pollen tubes were arrested in the style near the stigma, and few bunch grape pollen tubes were found at the base of the style. Barriers to the intersubgeneric crosses apparently occurred before fertilization; abortion of pollen tubes in the style was the major cause of failure for the cross of V. rotundifolia Michx. × Euvitis.

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Hong Lin and M. Andrew Walker

The DNA extracted from cambium tissues of grape (Vitis spp., Muscadinia rotundifolia Small) rootstocks was found to be suitable for molecular analysis. Its quality was equivalent to that of DNA extracted from leaf tissues, although the yield was higher from leaves. The use of cambium tissue allows DNA extractions during dormancy or from grafted rootstocks where leaves are not available. The DNA extracted was suitable for restriction enzyme digestion and for analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and simple sequence repeats.

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Jiang Lu, Xianping Qu, and Olusola Lamikanra

Two morphologically very distinct grapevines belonging to the subgenera Euvitis and Muscadinia of the genus Vitis are cultivated in the United States. The former is commonly called “bunch” grape, while the latter is usually called “muscadine.” Genetic diversity among these grapes was investigated based on random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). Sixteen grape cultivars, with their parentage including V. rotundifolia, V. vinifera, and several American Vitis species, were used for the RAPD analysis. More than 200 RAPDs were produced from 20 random primers. More than 90% of which were polymorphic between the muscadine and the bunch grapes, while polymorphism was considerably low within the muscadine and the bunch grapes. The relationships of grapes between these two subgenera were estimated based on bandsharing and cluster analysis. The result based on the DNA analysis agrees with the isozyme data obtained from a separate study, which demonstrated that the muscadine grape shares very low common alleles with the American bunch grapes and the European grapes.

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Xianping Qu, Jiang Lu, and Olusola Lamikanra

Two morphologically distinct types of grapes belonging to the subgenera Euvitis and Muscadinia in the genus Vitis are cultivated in the United States. The former is commonly called bunch grapes while the latter is usually called muscadine. Genetic diversity among these grapes was investigated using RAPD markers. Sixteen grape cultivars, with parentage including V. rotundifolia Michx., V. vinifera L., and several American Vitis species, were used for the RAPD analysis. A total of 156 RAPD markers was produced from 19 random primers, over 90% of which was polymorphic among the muscadine and the bunch grapes. Polymorphisms were lower within each subgenus. Relationships between these two subgenera were estimated based on band-sharing and cluster analysis. The average genetic distance between the bunch and the muscadine grape cultivars was 0.45. The results based on DNA analysis agree with isozyme data obtained from a separate study, which demonstrated that muscadine grapes share very few common alleles with American bunch grapes and European grapes.

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Patrick Conner, Joann Conner, Paige Catotti, Jennifer Lewter, John R. Clark, and Luiz A. Biasi

The genus Vitis L. contains two subgenera, Euvitis Planch. (bunch grapes) and Muscadinia Planch. (muscadine grapes). The Muscadinia consists of just three species: V. rotundifolia , the common muscadine grape known throughout the