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A.R. Mitchell, E.A. Rechel, and R.L. Dovel

Because peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) grows anew from rhizomes each spring, methods to measure the energy stored in the peppermint rhizomes would be useful. Our objective was to compare three methods of measuring carbohydrate in peppermint samples taken throughout a growing season. Total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) is a measure of the water- and acid-soluble sugars. Etiolated growth measurements of nonstructural biomass (NSB) are a reliable method for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) taproots. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is another method that has been used to determine TNC of alfalfa. Rhizomes were sampled monthly from four locations within a field. The NSB was correlated (r = 0.74) with the TNC means from each sampling date. The NIRS calibration was highly correlated with the TNC of all samples (R 2=0.96). Both NSB and TNC decreased in summer and increased in the fall as the plant stored carbohydrate for winter survival and regrowth. Any of the three methods could be used to study energy storage, although NIRS is the quickest, and NSB the least technologically sophisticated. Based on the positive results of NIRS, a more comprehensive calibration is warranted.

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Thomas Horgan, and S. Marie Rogers

turkey meat to inhibit lipid oxidation and the development of rancid off-flavors ( Mielnik et al., 2008 ). We hypothesized that residual distillation water could have an effect on peppermint ( Mentha × piperita L.) and spearmint ( Mentha spicata L

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Vasile Cerven, Charles L. Cantrell, Wayne M. Ebelhar, and Thomas Horgan

had 40 plants in two rows with 0.3 m in the row and between-row spacing. Virus-free elite plant material of peppermint ( Mentha piperita L.) ‘Black Mitcham’ was purchased from the Summit Plant Laboratories (Fort Collins, CO). This is the traditional

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Kelly J. Vining, Q Zhang, C.A. Smith, and T.M. Davis

Green, R.J. 1951 Studies on the host range of the Verticillium that causes wilt of Mentha piperita L Science 113 207 208 Hubbard Center for Genome Studies University of New Hampshire 2002 Sequencing reactions for the

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Khalid M. Elhindi, Yaser Hassan Dewir, Abdul-Wasea Asrar, Eslam Abdel-Salam, Ahmed Sharaf El-Din, and Mohamed Ali

spicata × Mentha aquatic ) has been reported ( Niu and Zhao, 2012 ); however, no reports were found on M. piperita. Therefore, we investigated presowing treatments with different PGRs including GA 3 , IAA, IBA, and NAA at different concentrations with

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Weiguang Yi and Hazel Y. Wetzstein

cardiaca ), and peppermint ( Mentha piperita ), were grown in a greenhouse at the University of Georgia, Athens, GA, from Feb. 2009 to Apr. 2009. Herbs were planted in 30-cm wide pots with Fafard 3B soil and grown under natural light conditions at 21 ± 2 °C

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A.L. Fenwick and S.M. Ward

Seventeen mint accessions representing the three species grown for commercial oil production in the United States were characterized using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The RAPD profiles readily identified the different Mentha species; calculation of genetic distance, based on the number of shared bands, indicated that M. spicata L. is more closely related to M. × gracilis than to M. × piperita. The RAPD profiles also distinguished among eight peppermint accessions of different geographical origin. However, only limited polymorphism was observed among the most widely grown peppermint and Scotch spearmint cultivars. These results indicate a potential lack of genetic diversity in mint cultivars grown for oil in the United States.

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J.M. Van Eck and S.L. Kitto

Plant regeneration from callus cultures of mint depended on expiant source, genotype, and culture medium components. Mature embryos, seedling and flower parts, as well as chilled or desiccated immature embryos of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) were cultured on a Murashige-Skoog medium containing various combinations of growth factors. Shoots regenerated from callus that developed either on mature peppermint embryos cultured on medium that contained BA at 0.5 mg·liter-1 and NAA at 0.5 mg·liter-1 or on immature peppermint embryos (chilled at SC for 0.6 day or nonchilled) cultured on basal medium containing BA at 1 mg·liter-1 and TIBA at 1 mg·liter-1 Shoots were proliferated, rooted, and acclimated. with 100% survival under greenhouse conditions. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl) -1H-purin-6-amine (BA); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA).

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Brent Tisserat and Steven Vaughn

The influence of a wide range of CO2 levels on the growth, morphogenesis, and secondary metabolite production in vitro was evaluated. Shoots of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and a spearmint–peppermint cross (Mentha spicata × Mentha piperita) were grown on MS medium with and without 3% sucrose under 350, 1500, 3000, 10,000, and 30,000 μL CO2/L for 8 weeks. Dichloromethane extracts from leafs were analyzed using GC-MS techniques. Prominent peaks were identified by comparison with known standards. Highest growth (i.e., fresh weight) and morphogenesis responses (i.e., leafs, shoots and roots) were obtained when shoots were grown under 10,000 μL CO2/L regardless of whether or not sucrose was included in the medium. Ultra-high CO2 concentrations (3000 μL CO2/L) stimulated secondary metabolite production regardless of whether or not the medium contained sucrose. However, the combination of certain ultra-high CO2 levels (e.g., 3000 to 10,000 μL CO2/L) and the presence of sucrose in the medium resulted in shoots producing the highest levels of secondary metabolites. These results suggest that in vitro photosynthesis, which is stimulated by ultrahigh CO2 levels, may enhance secondary metabolite production.

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Jerry T. Walker

Twenty herb species were exposed to root-knot nematode under greenhouse conditions. The root systems were examined for root gall development and nematode reproduction as an indication of host suitability. The herbs evaluated were balm (Melissa officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), catnip (Nepeta cataria L.), chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativium L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavender (Lavandula augustifolia Mill.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), peppermint (Mentha ×piperita L.), rocket-salad (Erurca vesicaria L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.), sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.). Peppermint, oregano, and marjoram consistently were free of root galls after exposure to initial nematode populations of two or 15 eggs/cm3 of soil medium and were considered resistant. All other herb species developed root galls with accompanying egg masses, classifying them as susceptible or hypersusceptible to root-knot nematode. The highest initial nematode egg density (15 eggs/cm3) significantly decreased dry weights of 14 species. The dry weights of other species were unaffected at these infestation densities after 32- to 42-day exposure.