’ sweetpotato adventitious root obtained from a plant subjected to high Meloidogyne incognita inoculum level ( A ). The same sample was scanned in gray scale for image analysis using WinRHIZO ( B ), showing nematode galls on lateral roots (LR) (inset, C
Judy A. Thies, Sharon Buckner, Matthew Horry, Richard Hassell and Amnon Levi
’ bottle gourd (1114) and ‘Strong Tosa’ squash hybrid (2653) ( Table 1 ). Table 1. Percentage of root system galled and covered with egg masses of Meloidogyne incognita, numbers of M. incognita eggs per gram fresh root, and total fruit yield for ‘Tri
E. Zamora, P.W. Bosland and S. Thomas
The resistance of `Carolina Cayenne' (Capsicum annuum L.) to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood races 1, 2, 3, and 4 was measured. Egg counts from roots were used to determine the plant's resistance to M. incognita. Few eggs were observed on `Carolina Cayenne' roots, whereas all races of M. incognita produced numerous eggs on the susceptible `NuMex R Naky' roots. The results indicated `Carolina Cayenne' is a source of resistance to all known races of M. incognita.
B.A. Mullin, G.S. Abawi, M.A. Pastor-Corrales and J.L. Kornegay
A stem grafting technique was used to determine the contribution of root and shoot tissues of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to the resistance response to the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White, 1919) Chitwood 1949. Stemgrafts were prepared between resistant (line A 211 or cultivar Nemasnap) and susceptible (Canario Divex) bean cultivars in all possible scion-rootstock combinations. Graft combinations in which the rootstock was resistant resulted in a resistant response to M. incognita, and those combinations in which the rootstock was susceptible resulted in a susceptible response, regardless of scion component. Resistance factors were therefore either localized within roots or not translocated basipetally through the stem graft union.
G.B. Cap, P.A. Roberts, I.J. Thomason and T. Murashige
Genotypes of Lycopersicon peruvianum (L.) Mill. and L. peruvianum var. glandulosum (Rick), selected from accessions that possess resistance to Meloidogyne incognita [(Kofoid and White) Chitwood] at high soil temperature (30C), were used as male parents in crosses with L. esculentum (Mill.) susceptible cultivars UC82, Lukullus, Tropic, and male-sterile line ms-31, respectively. The incongruity barrier between the two plant species was overcome by embryo callus and embryo cloning techniques. Hybridity of the F, progeny obtained from each cross was confirmed by differences in leaf and flower morphology, plant growth habits, and by acid phosphatase isozyme phenotypes using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In greenhouse inoculation experiments, F1 plants were highly resistant to M. incognita in soil at 25 and 30C. These results confirmed the successful transfer and expression of heat-stable resistance to M. incognita from L. peruvianum to hybrids with L. esculentum as a preliminary step to introgressing additional root-knot nematode resistance into tomato.
Carolina Fernández, Jorge Pinochet, Daniel Esmenjaud, Maria Joao Gravato-Nobre and Antonio Felipe
The influence of salinity and plant age on nematode reproduction was determined on two susceptible and six root-knot-nematode-resistant Prunus rootstocks inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White). Experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions over 120 (plant age study) and 75 (salinity study) days. Following inoculation with 4000 nematodes per plant, susceptible 2-month-old GF-677 (Prunus persica L. Batsch. × P. dulcis Mill. Webb) and Montclar (P. persica) were affected significantly more than 1-year-old plants. Barrier (P. persica × P. davidiana Carr. Franch.) plantlets showed a partial loss of resistance in relation to older plants, suggesting that a root tissue maturation period is required for expression of full resistance. Nemared (P. persica); G × N No 22 (P. persica × P. dulcis); and the plums GF 8-1 (P. cerasifera Ehrh. × P. munsoniana Wight and Hedrick), PSM 101 (P. insititia L.), and P 2980 (P. cerasifera) maintained their high level of resistance or immunity, regardless of plant age. Nematode reproduction was higher in GF-677 rootstock in saline soil. Nemared and Barrier showed similar low galling and nematode reproduction in nonsaline and saline soil. PSM 101 immunity to M. incognita was not affected by soil condition.
Ghazala P. Hashmi, F.A. Hammerschlag, R.N. Huettel and L.R. Krusberg
Somaclonal variation has been reported in many plant species, and several phenotypic and genetic changes, including pathogen and pest resistance, have been described. This study was designed to evaluate somaclonal variation in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] regenerants in response to the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood. Regenerants SH-156-1, SH-156-7, SH-156-11, and SH-156-12, derived from `Sunhigh' (susceptible) embryo no. 156, and regenerants RH-30-1, RH-30-2, RH-30-4, RH-30-6, RH-30-7, and RH-30-8, derived from `Redhaven' (moderately resistant) embryo no. 30, were screened in vitro for resistance to the root-knot nematode. Under in vitro conditions, fewest nematodes developed on regenerants SH-156-1 and SH-156-11, `Redhaven', and all `Redhaven' embryo no. 30 regenerants. The most nematodes developed on `Sunhigh', `Sunhigh' seedlings (SHS), and regenerant SH-156-7. Nematodes did not develop on `Nemaguard'. In greenhouse tests, fewer nematodes developed and reproduced on the no. 156-series regenerants than on `Sunhigh'. Under in vitro conditions, significant differences among uninfected (control) regenerants, cultivars, and rootstock `Nemaguard' were observed for shoot height and fresh root weights. Significant differences were also observed among infected regenerants, cultivars, and `Nemaguard' for these characteristics, but differences were not observed between control and infected regenerants. Different concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid in half-strength Murashige and Skoog salt medium induced rooting of two peach cultivars, one rootstock, and four regenerants.
J.C. Cervantes-Flores, G.C. Yencho and E.L. Davis
Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] genotypes were evaluated for resistance to North Carolina root-knot nematode populations: Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood races 1 and 2; M. incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood races 1, 2, 3, and 4; and M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood. Resistance screening was conducted using 150-cm3 Conetainers containing 3 sand: 1 soil mix. Nematode infection and reproduction were assessed as the number of egg masses produced by root-knot nematodes per root system. Host suitability for the root-knot nematode populations differed among the 27 sweetpotato genotypes studied. Five genotypes (`Beauregard', L86-33, PDM P6, `Porto Rico', and `Pelican Processor') were selected for further study based on their differential reaction to the different root-knot nematodes tested. Two African landraces (`Tanzania' and `Wagabolige') were also selected because they were resistant to all the nematode species tested. The host status was tested against the four original M. incognita races, and an additional eight populations belonging to four host races, but collected from different geographical regions. The virulence of root-knot nematode populations of the same host race varied among and within sweetpotato genotypes. `Beauregard', L86-33, and PDM P6 were hosts for all 12 M. incognita populations, but differences in the aggressiveness of the isolates were observed. `Porto Rico' and `Pelican Processor' had different reactions to the M. incognita populations, regardless of the host race. Several clones showed resistance to all M. incognita populations tested. These responses suggest that different genes could be involved in the resistance of sweetpotato to root-knot nematodes. The results also suggest that testing Meloidogyne populations against several different sweetpotato hosts may be useful in determining the pathotypes affecting sweetpotato.
Judy A. Thies, Richard L. Fery, John D. Mueller, Gilbert Miller and Joseph Varne
Resistance of two sets of bell pepper [(Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum (Grossum Group)] cultivars near-isogenic for the N gene that conditions resistance to root-knot nematodes [Meloidogyne incognita (Chitwood) Kofoid and White, M. arenaria (Neal) Chitwood races 1 and 2, and M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood] was evaluated in field tests at Blackville, S.C. and Charleston, S.C. The isogenic bell pepper sets were `Charleston Belle' (NN) and `Keystone Resistant Giant' (nn), and `Carolina Wonder' (NN) and `Yolo Wonder B' (nn). The resistant cultivars Charleston Belle and Carolina Wonder were highly resistant; root galling was minimal for both cultivars at both test sites. The susceptible cultivars Keystone Resistant Giant and Yolo Wonder B were highly susceptible; root galling was severe at both test sites. `Charleston Belle' had 96.9% fewer eggs per g fresh root than `Keystone Resistant Giant', and `Carolina Wonder' had 98.3% fewer eggs per g fresh root than `Yolo Wonder B' (averaged over both test sites). `Charleston Belle' and `Carolina Wonder' exhibited a high level of resistance in field studies at both sites. These results demonstrate that resistance conferred by the N gene for root-knot nematode resistance is effective in field-planted bell pepper. Root-knot nematode resistant bell peppers should provide economical and environmentally compatible alternatives to methyl bromide and other nematicides for managing M. incognita.
Jerry T. Walker
Twenty herb species were exposed to root-knot nematode under greenhouse conditions. The root systems were examined for root gall development and nematode reproduction as an indication of host suitability. The herbs evaluated were balm (Melissa officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), catnip (Nepeta cataria L.), chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativium L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavender (Lavandula augustifolia Mill.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), peppermint (Mentha ×piperita L.), rocket-salad (Erurca vesicaria L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.), sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.). Peppermint, oregano, and marjoram consistently were free of root galls after exposure to initial nematode populations of two or 15 eggs/cm3 of soil medium and were considered resistant. All other herb species developed root galls with accompanying egg masses, classifying them as susceptible or hypersusceptible to root-knot nematode. The highest initial nematode egg density (15 eggs/cm3) significantly decreased dry weights of 14 species. The dry weights of other species were unaffected at these infestation densities after 32- to 42-day exposure.