analysis ( Muñoz-Amatriaín et al., 2021 ). The mini-core collection has been screened for several traits, including screening for resistance to the RKN Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid and White (Chitwood) (P.A. Roberts, personal communication), and for
’ sweetpotato adventitious root obtained from a plant subjected to high Meloidogyne incognita inoculum level ( A ). The same sample was scanned in gray scale for image analysis using WinRHIZO ( B ), showing nematode galls on lateral roots (LR) (inset, C
’ bottle gourd (1114) and ‘Strong Tosa’ squash hybrid (2653) ( Table 1 ). Table 1. Percentage of root system galled and covered with egg masses of Meloidogyne incognita, numbers of M. incognita eggs per gram fresh root, and total fruit yield for ‘Tri
The resistance of `Carolina Cayenne' (Capsicum annuum L.) to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood races 1, 2, 3, and 4 was measured. Egg counts from roots were used to determine the plant's resistance to M. incognita. Few eggs were observed on `Carolina Cayenne' roots, whereas all races of M. incognita produced numerous eggs on the susceptible `NuMex R Naky' roots. The results indicated `Carolina Cayenne' is a source of resistance to all known races of M. incognita.
A stem grafting technique was used to determine the contribution of root and shoot tissues of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to the resistance response to the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White, 1919) Chitwood 1949. Stemgrafts were prepared between resistant (line A 211 or cultivar Nemasnap) and susceptible (Canario Divex) bean cultivars in all possible scion-rootstock combinations. Graft combinations in which the rootstock was resistant resulted in a resistant response to M. incognita, and those combinations in which the rootstock was susceptible resulted in a susceptible response, regardless of scion component. Resistance factors were therefore either localized within roots or not translocated basipetally through the stem graft union.
Genotypes of Lycopersicon peruvianum (L.) Mill. and L. peruvianum var. glandulosum (Rick), selected from accessions that possess resistance to Meloidogyne incognita [(Kofoid and White) Chitwood] at high soil temperature (30C), were used as male parents in crosses with L. esculentum (Mill.) susceptible cultivars UC82, Lukullus, Tropic, and male-sterile line ms-31, respectively. The incongruity barrier between the two plant species was overcome by embryo callus and embryo cloning techniques. Hybridity of the F, progeny obtained from each cross was confirmed by differences in leaf and flower morphology, plant growth habits, and by acid phosphatase isozyme phenotypes using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In greenhouse inoculation experiments, F1 plants were highly resistant to M. incognita in soil at 25 and 30C. These results confirmed the successful transfer and expression of heat-stable resistance to M. incognita from L. peruvianum to hybrids with L. esculentum as a preliminary step to introgressing additional root-knot nematode resistance into tomato.
Three greenhouse tests to determine the reactions of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) breeding lines and their respective open-pollinated offspring to 2 species of root-knot nematodes were conducted. Resistances occurred in high frequency to both the southern root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood) and the Javanese (tropical) root knot nematode (M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood). Reaction to M. incognita was studied in 2 consecutive years with different sets of parental lines using an egg mass index. Estimated heritability (h2) in 1976 was 0.75 ± 0.23 and in 1977 was 0.57 ± 0.37. Three indices of reaction to M. javanica and respective h2 estimates were: Egg mass index, 0.69 ± 0.18; galling index, 0.78 ± 0.19; and necrosis index, 0.72 ± 0.20. Resistances to the 2 species were not correlated, indicating independent inheritance. Development of cultivars with high levels of resistance to each or to both of the above diseases is possible.
Progeny from a hybridization of C. melo L. (PI 140471), a feral Cucumis melo, with the nematode-resistant African horned cucumber (C. metuliferus E. Mey.) (PI 292190) were screened for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita acrita Chitwood. Although C. metuliferus exhibited resistance, no resistance was observed in PI 140471 nor in the F2 generation after inoculation with a larval suspension having 600 larvae/ml. However, when grown in contact with chopped galled roots, certain progeny appeared to be resistant. Evaluation of egg mass production revealed that the resistant plants produced significantly fewer eggs than susceptible plants.
The influence of salinity and plant age on nematode reproduction was determined on two susceptible and six root-knot-nematode-resistant Prunus rootstocks inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White). Experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions over 120 (plant age study) and 75 (salinity study) days. Following inoculation with 4000 nematodes per plant, susceptible 2-month-old GF-677 (Prunus persica L. Batsch. × P. dulcis Mill. Webb) and Montclar (P. persica) were affected significantly more than 1-year-old plants. Barrier (P. persica × P. davidiana Carr. Franch.) plantlets showed a partial loss of resistance in relation to older plants, suggesting that a root tissue maturation period is required for expression of full resistance. Nemared (P. persica); G × N No 22 (P. persica × P. dulcis); and the plums GF 8-1 (P. cerasifera Ehrh. × P. munsoniana Wight and Hedrick), PSM 101 (P. insititia L.), and P 2980 (P. cerasifera) maintained their high level of resistance or immunity, regardless of plant age. Nematode reproduction was higher in GF-677 rootstock in saline soil. Nemared and Barrier showed similar low galling and nematode reproduction in nonsaline and saline soil. PSM 101 immunity to M. incognita was not affected by soil condition.
Somaclonal variation has been reported in many plant species, and several phenotypic and genetic changes, including pathogen and pest resistance, have been described. This study was designed to evaluate somaclonal variation in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] regenerants in response to the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood. Regenerants SH-156-1, SH-156-7, SH-156-11, and SH-156-12, derived from `Sunhigh' (susceptible) embryo no. 156, and regenerants RH-30-1, RH-30-2, RH-30-4, RH-30-6, RH-30-7, and RH-30-8, derived from `Redhaven' (moderately resistant) embryo no. 30, were screened in vitro for resistance to the root-knot nematode. Under in vitro conditions, fewest nematodes developed on regenerants SH-156-1 and SH-156-11, `Redhaven', and all `Redhaven' embryo no. 30 regenerants. The most nematodes developed on `Sunhigh', `Sunhigh' seedlings (SHS), and regenerant SH-156-7. Nematodes did not develop on `Nemaguard'. In greenhouse tests, fewer nematodes developed and reproduced on the no. 156-series regenerants than on `Sunhigh'. Under in vitro conditions, significant differences among uninfected (control) regenerants, cultivars, and rootstock `Nemaguard' were observed for shoot height and fresh root weights. Significant differences were also observed among infected regenerants, cultivars, and `Nemaguard' for these characteristics, but differences were not observed between control and infected regenerants. Different concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid in half-strength Murashige and Skoog salt medium induced rooting of two peach cultivars, one rootstock, and four regenerants.