harvest dates for marketable flowers. The test species chosen for this study was stock ( Matthiola incana ) cultivar Cheerful White, a relatively salt-tolerant crop ( Grieve et al., 2006 ; Lunt et al., 1954 ). Materials and Methods The experiment
Catherine M. Grieve, James A. Poss, Peter J. Shouse, and Christy T. Carter
Fisun G. Çelikel and Michael S. Reid
The respiration of flowers of stock [Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br.] had a Q10 of 6.9 between 0 and 10 °C. Simulated transport for 5 days resulted in marked reduction in the vase life of flowers transported at 10 °C and above. Flower opening, water uptake, and vase life of the flowers increased somewhat in a vase solution containing 50 ppm NaOCl, and considerably in a commercial preservative containing glucose and a bactericide. Exposure to exogenous ethylene resulted in rapid desiccation and abscission of the petals, effects that were prevented by pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Even in the absence of exogenous ethylene, the life of the flowers was significantly increased by inhibiting ethylene action using pretreatment with silver thiosulfate (STS) or 1-MCP. STS was more effective than 1-MCP in maintaining flower quality.
C.M. Grieve, J.A. Poss, and C. Amrhein
Two cultivars of Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br. (`Cheerful White' and `Frolic Carmine') were grown in greenhouse sand cultures to determine the effect of salt stress on growth, ion relations, and flower quality. Two types of irrigation waters, differing in ion composition, were prepared to simulate saline wastewaters commonly present in two inland valley locations in California. Solution ICV was typical of saline tailwaters frequently found in the Imperial and Coachella Valleys and contained Cl–, Na+, SO4 2–, Mg2+, Ca2+, predominating in that order. Solution SJV was dominated by Na+ and SO4 2– and simulated saline drainage effluents often present in the San Joaquin Valley. Five treatments of each salinity type were imposed; each was replicated three times. Electrical conductivities of the irrigation waters (ECi) were 2.5, 5, 8, 11, and 14 dS·m–1. Plant heights were determined weekly. Seedlings were sampled for ion analysis 9 weeks after planting. Flowering stems were harvested when about 50% of the florets in the inflorescence were open. Total stem length, weight and diameter, numbers of florets and buds, and inflorescence length were measured at final harvest. All plants remained healthy throughout the experimental period with no visible signs of ion toxicity or deficiency. Although length of the flowering stems decreased with increasing salinity, stems were of marketable quality even at the highest salinity level. Mineral ion composition of the vegetative tissues generally reflected ion concentrations in the irrigation waters. Shoot Mg2+ and Cl– were higher and shoot Na+ lower in seedlings irrigated with ICV waters than with SJV waters. Shoot P was reduced over control levels once salinity exceeded 11 dS·m–1. Both cultivars were highly selective for K+ over Na + and selectivity coefficients (SK, Na) increase about 60% as salinity increased from 2.5 to 14 dS·m–1. This study illustrates that commercially acceptable cut flowers of stock may be produced under irrigation with moderately saline wastewaters.
Ron Ecker, Amalia Barzilay, Levy Afgin, and Abd-elrahem A. Watad
Ben A. Bergmann, John M. Dole, and Ingram McCall
earliness and increased production in Gladiolus Gartenbauwissenschaf 49 91 94 Grzesik, M. 1995 Effect of growth regulators on plant growth and seed yield of Matthiola incana , ‘Brilliant Barbara’ Seed Sci. Technol. 23 801 806 GuoSheng, Z. ShuPeng, G
Iftikhar Ahmad, Muhammad B. Rafiq, John M. Dole, Bilal Abdullah, and Kinza Habib
Postharvest handling of stock ( Matthiola incana ) HortScience 37 144 147 Clark, E.M.R. Dole, J.M. Carlson, A.S. Moody, E.P. McCall, I.F. Fanelli, F.L. Fonteno, W.C. 2010 Vase life of new cut flower cultivars HortTechnology 20 1016 1025 Dole, J.M. Greer, L
Samantha R. Nobes, Karen L. Panter, and Randa Jabbour
in this study included ‘Princess Golden’ pot marigold ( Calendula officinalis ), ‘Lucinda Mix’ stock ( Matthiola incana ), ‘Double Mix’ strawflower ( Helichrysum bracteatum ), ‘Dara’ ornamental carrot ( Daucus carota ), and ‘Celway Mix’ cockscomb
Tasneem M. Vaid, Erik S. Runkle, and Jonathan M. Frantz
impatiens ( Impatiens hawkeri ‘Divine Cherry Red’), osteospermum ( Osteospermum ecklonis ‘Asti Purple’), pot marigold ( Calendula officinalis ‘Bon Bon Orange’), snapdragon ( Antirrhinum majus ‘Liberty Classic Cherry’), stock ( Matthiola incana ‘Hot
Iftikhar Ahmad and John M. Dole
Rosa hybrida L. ‘Kardinal’ flowers J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 88 251 256 Çelikel, F.G. Reid, M.S. 2002 Postharvest handling of stock ( Matthiola incana ) HortScience 37 144 147 De Stigter, H.C.M. 1981 Effects of glucose with 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate
Jeff S. Kuehny, Aaron Painter, and Patricia C. Branch
Eight bedding plant species were grown from plugs obtained from two sources. The plugs were transplanted into jumbo six packs and sprayed with a solution of chlormequat/daminozide with concentrations of 1000/800, 1250/1250, or 1500/5000 mg·L-1 when new growth was ≈5 cm in height or width. Three different species were grown in the fall (Dianthus chinensis L., `Telstar Mix', Petunia ×hybrida Hort. Vilm.-Andr., `Dreams Red', and Viola ×wittrockiana Gams., `Bingo Blue'), winter [Antirrhinum majus L., `Tahiti Mix', Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br., `Midget Red', and P. × hybrida, `Dreams Mix'], and spring [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, `Cooler Pink', Salvia splendens F. Sellow ex Roem. & Schult., `Empire Red', and Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum Hort., `Cocktail Mix']. The treatments significantly reduced finished plant size of all species for each season. There was a significant difference in finish size between sources for Dianthus, Antirrhinum, Matthiola, Catharanthus, Salvia, and Begonia. The efficacy of chlormequat/daminozide also differed for each source of Dianthus, Matthiola, and Begonia, but the treatments minimized the differences in finish size between sources for Petunia and Viola. Chemical names used: (2-chlorethyl) trimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat); (N-dimethylaminosuccinamic acid) (daminozide).