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Wesley T. Watson*, David N. Appel, Michael A. Arnold, Charles M. Kenerley, and James L. Starr

Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (Duggar) Hennebert (syn. Phymatotrichum omnivorum Duggar) is a recalcitrant soilborne pathogen that causes serious root rot problems on numerous plant species in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Apple trees [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf. (syn. M. domestica Borkh. non Poir.)] are highly susceptible to P. omnivora with most tree death occurring in the summer months. Studies were conducted from 1996 to 1999 to examine when and at what rate infection and colonization of roots of apple trees by P. omnivora actually occurs. In three-year-old trees growing in orchard soils in 45-gallon containers (171,457 cm3) and inoculated with sclerotia in August 1997, infection occurred in the nursery after 12 weeks. For trees inoculated with sclerotia in February 1998, infection occurred within 15 weeks. After 18 weeks, 100% of trees were infected after inoculation in August and 80% of trees were infected after the February inoculation. This information is vital to understanding the epidemiology of Phymatotrichum root rot in apple orchards.

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Daniel Ferreira Holderbaum, Tomoyuki Kon, Tsuyoshi Kudo, and Miguel Pedro Guerra

Apples ( Malus × sylvestris var. domestica ) are an important source of polyphenols (phenolic compounds) in the human diet ( Hertog et al., 1992 ) and a classic example of fruit susceptibility to enzymatic browning, which is a major problem for

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Gerry Henry Neilsen, Denise Neilsen, and Linda Herbert

concentration and timing on performance of five different apple cultivars. Materials and Methods In Apr. 1998, five apple [ Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var domestica (Borkh.) Mansf] cultivars (Ambrosia, Cameo, Fuji, Gala, and Silken) on the dwarfing

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Jinwook Lee, In-Kyu Kang, Jacqueline F. Nock, and Christopher B. Watkins

et al., 2000 , 2002 ; Kweon et al., 2012 , 2013 ). Materials and Methods Fruit source, treatments, and shelf life and storage conditions. ‘Fuji’ apple [ Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] fruit used for this experiment

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Kevin R. Kosola, Beth Ann A. Workmaster, James S. Busse, and Jeffrey H. Gilman

roots from apple trees [ Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] at the University of Wisconsin Peninsular Agricultural Experiment Station near Sturgeon Bay (lat. 44°52′51.96″ N, long. 87°20′7.8″ E) on 13 May 2004. The soil type was an Emmet

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Bradley J. Rickard, David R. Rudell, and Christopher B. Watkins

costs if fewer materials are needed in storage. Here, we focus specifically on firm flesh browning of the ‘Empire’ apple ( Malus sylvestris var. domestica Borkh.), which is a major cause of revenue loss for growers and storage operators in New York

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Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

‘Royal Gala’ [ Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] is one of the major apple cultivars produced worldwide. In North America, production is projected to continue to increase ( U.S. Apple Association, 2010 ). The unique

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Gerry H. Neilsen, Denise Neilsen, Peter Toivonen, and Linda Herbert

and tree P status and apple yield and quality response was emphasized. Materials and Methods In Apr. 1998, an experimental block of five apple [ Malus sylvestris (L) Mill var domestica (Borkh.) Mansf] cultivars (Ambrosia, Cameo, Fuji, Gala, and

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Jean-Pierre Privé, Lindsay Russell, and Anita LeBlanc

physiological (drought) stress ( Glenn et al., 2001 ). From ‘Ginger Gold’ [ Malus × sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] leaf gas exchange measurements made in the 2004 season as part of a preliminary study, it appeared that greater rates of

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Gerry H. Neilsen, Denise Neilsen, Sung-hee Guak, and Tom Forge

fertigated apple trees. Materials and Methods ‘Ambrosia’ on ‘M.9’ apple trees [ Malus × sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] were planted in 2003 in a 0.9 (within row) × 3.5 m (between row) spacing on a Skaha loamy sand soil ( Wittneben