then by humans over the silk road trade routes into Europe. The modern cultivated apple ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) is believed to have been domesticated in Turkestan, now Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan ( Harris et al
Carole L. Bassett, D. Michael Glenn, Philip L. Forsline, Michael E. Wisniewski, and Robert E. Farrell Jr
Aroldo Isudro Rumayor Flores*, Jose Antonio Vázquez Ramos, Martínez Cano Andres, and Borrego Escalante Fernando
In hybrids of apple (Malus × domestica Bork.) subjected to study phenological in Aguanueva, Coahuila, Mexico, their requirements of chill hours (CH), heat units (HU), bud breaking flower and vegetative % (BB) for good adaptation to warm milder climate, bloom period (BP), and vegetative period (VP), were determined using the Methodology of Identification of New Cultivars of Fruit Breeding (Ploudiv 1983). They were material with requirements of cold from 200 up to 650 (CH) when they underwent a test of controlled conditions of (CH). These materials are; AR-109 (200 CH), AR-106 (300 CH), AR-108 (300 CH), AR-147 (300 CH), AR-144 (550 CH), and AR-a60 (650 CH), while the control Mutant Aguanueva II (500 CH). Under winter conditions of the year 2000 with so slone 168.76 (CH), some materials showed a bud break superior to the control. The bud break dates understand between 30 days before the witness Aguanueva II, as the hybrid AR-147 and 34 days later in the case of the hybrid AR-151, location this way to the materials as: Early with regard to the control; AR-16-S (24 days), AR-130 (14 days) and AR-147 (30 days). Similar to the control; AR-144, AR-103 and AR-127. Later than the control; AR-111 and AR-103-B. since they don't require spray bud breaking res compounds for their bud break and they have bloom period (BP) of 8 to 21 days. And when presenting low chill requirements they will be set fruit in a microclimate frost-free and growing and have their cultivation in a mild winter climate.
Travis Robert Alexander, Jacqueline King, Andrew Zimmerman, and Carol A. Miles
Cider is fermented apple ( Malus ×domestica Borkh.) juice, and is often referred to as hard cider in the United States in contrast to the nonfermented, unfiltered apple juice that is referred to as fresh cider or sweet cider ( Khanizadeh et al
Jose A. Yuri, Claudia Moggia, Carolina A. Torres, Alvaro Sepulveda, Valeria Lepe, and Jose L. Vasquez
locations in Chile. Materials and Methods Plant material. A set of seven apple ( Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars (‘Galaxy’, ‘Brookfield ® Gala’, ‘Super Chief’, ‘Fuji Raku Raku’, ‘Braeburn’, ‘Granny Smith’, and ‘Cripp's Pink’) grafted on two virus
Mehdi Sharifi, Julia Reekie, Andrew Hammermeister, Mohammed Zahidul Alam, and Taylor MacKey
performance in an organic apple ( Malus domestica Borkh) orchard in northern Patagonia Plant Soil 292 193 203 Schmid, A. Weibel, F. 2000 Das Sandwich-System–ein Verfahren zur herbizidfreien Baumstreifenbewirtschaftung? [The Sandwich System, a procedure for
Amy K. Szewc-McFadden, Warren F. Lamboy, and James R. McFerson
To comprehend genetic identity and relatedness in Malus germplasm held in situ and ex situ, we are employing simple sequence repeat (SSR) DNA fragment information in combination with passport and horticultural data. SSRs offer certain advantages for characterizing large arrays of germplasm efficiently. They are abundantly dispersed throughout plant genomes and are exceedingly polymorphic. In addition, they can be PCR-amplified and detected by automated fluorescence-based technology. A size-fractionated DNA library of M. ×domestica cv Golden Delicious was screened to identify SSR loci. Eight loci were found to be reliably informative and were used to prepare locus-specific primer pairs. Characterization of the 75 M. ×domestica accessions included in the core subset of the USDA-ARS Malus germplasm collection revealed six of the eight loci were polymorphic within the array. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 21. Throughput was enhanced by multiplexing, allowing simultaneous use of two or three primer pairs. With improved genetic characterization of Malus germplasm, we intend to better develop and relate the core subset to the rest of the collection and to in situ Malus genetic resources. SSR markers appear to be an efficient and reliable tool to expedite this process.
Wesley T. Watson*, David N. Appel, Michael A. Arnold, Charles M. Kenerley, and James L. Starr
Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (Duggar) Hennebert (syn. Phymatotrichum omnivorum Duggar) is a recalcitrant soilborne pathogen that causes serious root rot problems on numerous plant species in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Apple trees [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf. (syn. M. domestica Borkh. non Poir.)] are highly susceptible to P. omnivora with most tree death occurring in the summer months. Studies were conducted from 1996 to 1999 to examine when and at what rate infection and colonization of roots of apple trees by P. omnivora actually occurs. In three-year-old trees growing in orchard soils in 45-gallon containers (171,457 cm3) and inoculated with sclerotia in August 1997, infection occurred in the nursery after 12 weeks. For trees inoculated with sclerotia in February 1998, infection occurred within 15 weeks. After 18 weeks, 100% of trees were infected after inoculation in August and 80% of trees were infected after the February inoculation. This information is vital to understanding the epidemiology of Phymatotrichum root rot in apple orchards.
Nobuko Sugimoto and Randy Beaudry
The objective of the experiment was to determine developmental changes in major aroma profiles in `Jonagold' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) and analyze climacteric fruit characteristics. Changes in internal ethylene production, respiration, skin color, texture, and aroma concentration were measured during maturation and ripening of `Jonagold' apple fruit. Patterns for skin color, starch, and internal ethylene content were typical for the variety. Volatile compounds and CO2 increased after a rapid increase in ethylene production. Total ester emission peak coincided with fruit softening. Hexyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, butyl acetate, and hexyl 2-methylbutanoate were found to be the major volatile compounds detected by GC/MS. Long chain esters, such as hexyl acetate and butyl acetate, contributed during the early stages of ripening and short chain esters such as n-propyl acetate and butyl propanoate increased later. Esters are formed by combining alcohol moiety with CoA derivative of fatty acid moiety by the action of alcohol acyl transferase (AAT). The alcohols butanol, 2-methylbutanol, propanol, and hexanol increased at an earlier developmental stage than the esters for which they acted as substrates.
Fenton E. Larsen and Stewart S. Higgins
Tree size, cumulative yield, yield efficiency and anchorage of 6 micropropagated (MP) apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars were determined in 1991 after 5 years of production, as compared with trees on seedling (sdlg) or M 7a roots. Trees were planted in 1984, with crops harvested from 1987 through 1991. Trees were generally smallest (trunk cross-sectional area) on M 7a and were largest with 4 cultivars (`Delicious', `Jonathan', `Rome', `Spartan') when micropropagated. `Golden Delicious' (GD) was largest on sdlg. Cumulative yield was affected by a scion × rootstock interaction, with few trends in scion or rootstock effects. Mean cumulative yield was 84 kg tree-1, 71 and 58 for M 7a, MP and sdlg, respectively. Yield efficiency was also affected by a scion × rootstock interaction. In 1991, mean yield efficiency was 0.5 kg cm-2 for sdlg and MP trees, but was 1.05 for M 7a. Efficiency on M 7a was superior to other rootstocks with all scions except `GD', while sdlg and MP trees were statistically similar with all scions. All trees leaned in response to prevailing westerly winds, with trees on sdlg tending to be more upright than MP or M 7a trees.
Minou Hemmat, Norman F. Weeden, and Susan K. Brown
We mapped DNA polymorphisms generated by 41 sets of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) primers, developed independently in four laboratories. All primer sets gave polymorphisms that could be located on our `White Angel' x `Rome Beauty' map for apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. The SSR primers were used to identify homologous linkage groups in `Wijcik McIntosh', NY 75441-58, `Golden Delicious', and `Liberty' cultivars for which relatively complete linkage maps have been constructed from isozyme and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. In several instances, two or more SSRs were syntenic, and except for an apparent translocation involving linkage group (LG) 6, these linkages were conserved throughout the six maps. Twenty-four SSR primers were consistently polymorphic, and these are recommended as standard anchor markers for apple maps. Experiments on a pear (Pyrus communis L.) population indicated that many of the apple SSRs would be useful for mapping in pear. However some of the primers produced fragments in pear significantly different in size than those in apple.