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Warren C. Stiles

Nutritional status of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees may influence regularity of cropping through effects of some nutrient elements at various stages of the floral initiation, development, pollination, fertilization and fruit setting process. Other elements may influence regularity of cropping more indirectly as consequences of their effects on physiological processes or by modifying the sensitivity of the tree to adverse environmental factors. This report provides a brief summary of reported impacts of mineral nutrition on regularity of cropping.

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Esmaeil Fallahi, S. Krishna Mohan, and Brenda R. Simons

Effects of several growth regulators and mineral nutrient sprays on `Rome Beauty' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) russetting under climatic conditions of southwest Idaho were studied in the 1990 and 1991 growing seasons. Zinc (Zn-50), Calcium as a 12% liquid nutrient (Stopit-6), and fungicide (Polyram) sprays slightly increased, while GA (Provide) decreased fruit russetting.

In 1991, GA and repeated Semperfresh (sucrose ester, carboxymethyl cellulose and mono and diglycerides) applications reduced russetting while Bayleton application increased russetting. Russetting varied from year to year. In 1991, a season of severe fruit russetting, trees which received a fungicide treatment for powdery mildew had generally higher incidence of fruit russetting regardless of treatments. It is believed that interaction between relative humidity, temperature, and systemic sprays used for powdery mildew control contribute to `Rome Beauty' russetting.

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Esmaeil Fallahi and Thomas Eichert

Deciduous tree fruit yield and quality will suffer in response to insufficiency of any mineral nutrient and foliar applications of some elements, including nitrogen (N), calcium, potassium (K), and boron (B), that are closely tied to fruit quality

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D.C. Elfving and R.A. Cline

Postbloom applications of benzyladenine (BA) thinned young fruitlets of mature `Empire' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) as well as or better than NAA or carbaryl (CB). BA increased fruit weight more effectively than either NAA or CB. Promalin (PR) was less effective than BA for both thinning and fruit-weight increase. In 1990, both BA and PR reduced fruit set up to 29 days after full bloom, but PR showed less thinning activity. BA and NAA produced independent and additive thinning responses when tank-mixed. Effects of all thinners on foliar mineral-nutrient concentrations were associated with changes in fruit load. BA increased return bloom as much or more than NAA or CB. PR did not affect return bloom. Chemical names used: N -(phenylmethyl)-1 H -purine-6-amine [benzyladenine (BA)]; BA plus gibberellins A, and A, [Promalin (PR)]; 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 1-naphthalenyl methylcarbamate [carbaryl (CB)].

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James R. Schupp, Esmaeil Fallahi, and Ik-Jo Chun

Studies were initiated in Idaho and New York to determine the effects of Surround, a kaolin clay particle film product recently labeled as a crop protectant for agricultural crops, on fruit maturity and quality of `Fuji' and `Honeycrisp' apples (Malus×domestica) and fruit mineral concentration of `Fuji' apples. Surround reduced fruit weight, red color, and the incidence of sunburn of `Fuji' apples in Idaho. Sunburn did not occur on `Honeycrisp' in the New York study. In that study, Surround had no effect on fruit weight or red fruit color when applied in May and June but reduced fruit weight and red color when applied later. The reduction in red color development observed in both `Fuji' and `Honeycrisp' was not related to mineral nutrients or to a delay in fruit maturity. Surround applications resulted in undesirable residues in the basin and in the cavity of harvested fruit that were not satisfactorily removed by brushing on a commercial packing line. While effective for reducing sunburn, Surround was ineffective for increasing red fruit color of apples.

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Esmaeil Fallahi

scheduling, on water use, tree growth, yield, and harvest-time fruit quality attributes during 2004–07 and leaf mineral nutrients during 2002–07 in ‘Pacific Gala’ apple. Materials and methods Orchard establishment. The experimental orchard was established at

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Massimo Tagliavini and Bruno Marangoni

We acknowledge the valuable contribution of M. Toselli, A. D. Rombolà, M. Quartieri, C. Zavalloni, D. Malaguti, F. Mazzanti, P. Lucchi, and G. Sorrenti in research projects on mineral nutrition carried out in our laboratory. We are also

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Dario Stefanelli*, Giovambattista Sorrenti, and Ronald L. Perry

Soil organic matter is a critical component which is fundamental in plant growth. Several soil factors are influenced by organic matter such as slow release of nutrients, increased water holding capacity, improved soil physical characteristics and improved environment for soil microorganisms. The aim of this work is to investigate the physical effect of organic matter content in the soil on apple root growth and development. Twenty five two-year old apple trees (Malus domestica, Borkh) cv. `Buckeye Gala' on M.9 NAKB 337 rootstock were planted in completely transparent acrylic boxes. Plants have been grown in a green house to avoid external rain in a complete randomized design. Trees were planted in a sandy-mix soil amended with soil high in organic matter, “muck”, at four incremental levels. Treatments compared were a control (sandy soil with 0% organic matter) and 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% soil organic matter. The amount of water applied by automatic drip irrigation was comparable for all the treatments to avoid high fluctuation of soil moisture on root dynamics. All treatments have been fertilized with the same amount of mineral fertilizer to avoid the nutrition effect on root dynamics. Digital photos of roots were taken to study their dynamics every one to two weeks during a period of five months. Roots have been highlighted with Photoshop and then analyzed with WinRhizo to measure root length, area, lifespan and dynamics. At the end of the growing period plants have been harvested and fresh and dry weight was evaluated to asses the root/shoot ratio. The effects of the treatments on root length, area, lifespan and dynamics, and root/shoot ratio will be discussed.

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Ricardo Fernández-Escobar, Miguel A. Sánchez-Zamora, Jorge M. García-Novelo, and Concepción Molina-Soria

Murphy, J. Riley, J.P. 1962 A modify single solutions method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters Anal. Chim. Acta 27 31 36 Palmer, J.W. Dryden, G. 2006 Fruit mineral removal rates from New Zealand apple ( Malus domestica ) orchards in the

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Carolyn F. Scagel, Guihong Bi, Leslie H. Fuchigami, and Richard P. Regan

point in segmented regression with application to longitudinal data Biometrical J. 45 591 601 Raese, T. Curry, E.A. 2009 Bioregulators influence calcium concentration and cold hardiness of young ‘Delicious’ ( Malus Domestica , Borkh) apple trees J. Plant