The objective of this study was to develop models to predict the occurrence of the flowering peak of macadamia nut (Macadamia integrifolia). At Hilo and Kona, weather and `Ikaika' flowering data were collected. The best model that described the time from the starting date of the flowering season to the highest flowering peak was days = 249.15 + 0.12 (total growing degree days) - 5.81 (maximum temperature) - 6.26 (minimum temperature). The model predicted the highest peak 4 days before it occurred at Hilo and 4 days after it occurred at Kona. Two statistical models, one for each location, were developed to predict the time from the starting date of the flowering season to the first peak. At Hilo, the best model was days = 118.61 - 0.11 (total growing degree days) + 0.000168 (total solar radiation). The model predicted the first peak 1 day before it occurred in the field. The best model at Kona was days = (-156.34) + 12.67 (minimum temperature) + 0.01 (total growing degree days). The model predicted the first peak on the day it occurred in the field. These models may aid growers in predicting the flowering peak so that bees can be brought into orchards at the proper time to increase cross-pollination.
Sam-Gwang Hwang, Kent D. Kobayashi, and Mike A. Nagao
L.A. Wasilwa, N. Ondabu, G.W. Watani, H. Mulli, S. Kiiru, A. Nyagah, and Kagiri
Several outstanding macadamia trees (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden and Betche, M. tetraphylla L. S. or hybrid of these two species) were selected from orchards established in the 1960s in the central and eastern highlands and evaluated over a period of 10 years. In the thrid year of these evaluations, clones from 30 high-yielding trees (40 to 90 kg) were propagated by grafting and trials were established in the central and eastern highlands. Three to five Hawaiian varieties were included as controls. Each trial consisted of five to 10 trees of each clone. Trees were evaluated for vigor, flowering, age of bearing, and yield. From these tests, a subset of 10 of the most outstanding clones were selected and evaluated in 25 field trials located in the Kenyan highlands. Most these clones started to bear 3 years after transplanting. Three distinct flowering patterns have been observed. Ten years after transplanting, yields ranged between 30 to 60 kg nuts/tree. The macadamia hybrids and M. tetraphylla performed best at the higher elevations (1700–1850 m), M. integrifolia clones performed best at elevations of 1500 to 1750 m. Only two Hawaiian varieties performed well and have been used in the breeding program. Most of the cultivated macadamia trees in Kenya are either M. integrifolia or hybrids. Cultivation of M. tetraphylla in Kenya is no longer recommended.
Russell Galanti, Alyssa Cho, Amjad Ahmad, and Javier Mollinedo
integrifolia Tree Physiol. 30 244 256 Guest, P. 1953 A comparison of certain chemical constituents of green and chlorotic macadamia leaves Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 42 104 Hardin, J. Smith, M. Wekler, P. Cheary, B. 2012 In situ measurement of pecan leaf
Proteaceae ( Hardner et al., 2009 ; Nagao, 2008 ), has two species that produce edible nuts: Macadamia integrifolia and Macadamia tetraphylla. Both have dark green holly-like leaves and can reach a height of 40 ft or more. Macadamia integrifolia , known
Lisa McFadyen, David Robertson, Stephen Morris, and Trevor Olesen
vegetative growth, flowering and yield of macadamia ( Macadamia integrifolia , M. integrifolia × M. tetraphylla ) in a canopy management context. PhD Diss., Univ. New England, Armidale, Australia Wilkie, J.D. Sedgley, M. Morris, S. Muldoon, S. Olesen, T
Tim J. O’Hare, Hung Hong Trieu, Bruce Topp, Dougal Russell, Sharon Pun, Caterina Torrisi, and Dianna Liu
Macadamia nut kernels ( Macadamia integrifolia, M. tetraphylla ) are very high in oil, accounting for about three-quarters of their weight ( Saleeb et al., 1973 ). The oil itself consists of ≈77% to 80% monounsaturated fat, 1% to 7% polyunsaturated
Russell Galanti, Alyssa Cho, Amjad Ahmad, and Theodore Radovich
Macadamia ( Macadamia integrifolia , Maiden & Betche) nut production is estimated to be a 22.2 million kilogram, $53.2 million industry in Hawaii ( USDA, 2018 ), and the largest macadamia production occurs in the United States. Current management
Benjamin D. Toft, Mobashwer M. Alam, John D. Wilkie, and Bruce L. Topp
integrifolia , Macadamia tetraphylla , and hybrids are subtropical evergreen trees native to coastal southern Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia. Vegetative growth is vigorous and quickly forms a dense canopy. Trees are traditionally planted at
Lisa McFadyen, David Robertson, Margaret Sedgley, Paul Kristiansen, and Trevor Olesen
.B. Yoshimoto, J.M. Yoshimura, E.R. Notley, E. Fuchigami, L.H. 1994 Relationship between vegetative flushing and flowering of Macadamia integrifolia in Hawaii Sci. Hort. 42 47 54 O’Hare, P. Quinlan, K. Stephenson, R. Vock, N. 2004 Growing guide: Macadamia
L.A. Wasilwa, N. Ondabu, and G.W. Watani
The macadamia nut was introduced to the Kenyan highlands from Australia in the early 1960s. Seedlings were propagated at a nursery near Kiambu in central Kenya by Bob Harris and were subsequently distributed in the central and eastern highlands and later the western highlands. The majority of seedlings planted were one two species, Macadamia integrifolia Maiden and Betche or M. tetraphylla L. S. A less common species, Macadamia ternifolia, was also planted. Several hybrids of M. integrifolia and M. tetraphylla have been identified in the central and eastern highlands. A macadamia improvement research program was launched in the early part of 1980 by the Ministry of Agriculture. Since then, 30 trees of the seedlings planted in the later part of 1960s have been selected and evaluated in trial orchards located in the Kenyan highlands. Most of the recently planted orchards constitute of 10 clones that yield between 40 to 90 kg of nuts annually. Five high-yielding macadamia varieties from Hawaii were introduced to Kenya in the early 1980s. To date >90% of the cultivated macadamia trees in Kenya are either M. integrifolia or hybrids of M. integrifolia and M. tetraphylla. Until the late 1970s, there was no market for macadamia nuts in Kenya. Since then, several companies market this crop, which is mainly exported to Japan and Europe.