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The objective of this study was to develop models to predict the occurrence of the flowering peak of macadamia nut (Macadamia integrifolia). At Hilo and Kona, weather and `Ikaika' flowering data were collected. The best model that described the time from the starting date of the flowering season to the highest flowering peak was days = 249.15 + 0.12 (total growing degree days) - 5.81 (maximum temperature) - 6.26 (minimum temperature). The model predicted the highest peak 4 days before it occurred at Hilo and 4 days after it occurred at Kona. Two statistical models, one for each location, were developed to predict the time from the starting date of the flowering season to the first peak. At Hilo, the best model was days = 118.61 - 0.11 (total growing degree days) + 0.000168 (total solar radiation). The model predicted the first peak 1 day before it occurred in the field. The best model at Kona was days = (-156.34) + 12.67 (minimum temperature) + 0.01 (total growing degree days). The model predicted the first peak on the day it occurred in the field. These models may aid growers in predicting the flowering peak so that bees can be brought into orchards at the proper time to increase cross-pollination.

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Several outstanding macadamia trees (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden and Betche, M. tetraphylla L. S. or hybrid of these two species) were selected from orchards established in the 1960s in the central and eastern highlands and evaluated over a period of 10 years. In the thrid year of these evaluations, clones from 30 high-yielding trees (40 to 90 kg) were propagated by grafting and trials were established in the central and eastern highlands. Three to five Hawaiian varieties were included as controls. Each trial consisted of five to 10 trees of each clone. Trees were evaluated for vigor, flowering, age of bearing, and yield. From these tests, a subset of 10 of the most outstanding clones were selected and evaluated in 25 field trials located in the Kenyan highlands. Most these clones started to bear 3 years after transplanting. Three distinct flowering patterns have been observed. Ten years after transplanting, yields ranged between 30 to 60 kg nuts/tree. The macadamia hybrids and M. tetraphylla performed best at the higher elevations (1700–1850 m), M. integrifolia clones performed best at elevations of 1500 to 1750 m. Only two Hawaiian varieties performed well and have been used in the breeding program. Most of the cultivated macadamia trees in Kenya are either M. integrifolia or hybrids. Cultivation of M. tetraphylla in Kenya is no longer recommended.

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Abstract

Oil, corresponding in amount to 6-14% of the original nut weight, was extracted from intact macadamia kernels by immersing them in petroleum ether for 48 hours at room temperature. Drying the extracted nuts in a vented oven at 55°C for 24 hours removed the odor and taste of the solvent and their flavor seemed to equal or excel that of nonextracted nuts. Oil thus recovered and marketed could provide additional revenue to the macadamia industry. Nuts of M. tetraphylla and of M. integrifolia were equal in oil content (74.9%) with an iodine value of 71.8 and 75.4, respectively. Macadamia oil had outstanding stability. The 8 major fatty acids in the oil and their mean percentages in the 2 species and their F1 and F2 hybrids were: myristic (0.60), palmitic (8.7), palmitoleic (22.1), stearic (3.6), oleic (59.1), linoleic (1.8), arachidic (2.2), and eicosenoic (1.5). The mean protein content in the lipid free meal of the parental and F1 populations was 36.5%. Arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and leucine made up about 52% of total amino acids recovered in each of the 2 species and the F1 generation.

Open Access

Abstract

Honey bees from commercial apiaries placed in a macadamia nut orchard increased nut yields in 2 of 3 cultivars tested.

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integrifolia Tree Physiol. 30 244 256 Guest, P. 1953 A comparison of certain chemical constituents of green and chlorotic macadamia leaves Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 42 104 Hardin, J. Smith, M. Wekler, P. Cheary, B. 2012 In situ measurement of pecan leaf

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Proteaceae ( Hardner et al., 2009 ; Nagao, 2008 ), has two species that produce edible nuts: Macadamia integrifolia and Macadamia tetraphylla. Both have dark green holly-like leaves and can reach a height of 40 ft or more. Macadamia integrifolia , known

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. Queensland Dept. Primary Ind., Brisbane, Australia Wilkie, J.D. 2009 Interactions between the vegetative growth, flowering and yield of macadamia ( Macadamia integrifolia , M. integrifolia × M. tetraphylla ) in a canopy management context. PhD Diss., Univ

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Macadamia ( Macadamia integrifolia and Macadamia tetraphylla , along with their interspecific hybrids) is indigenous to the eastern Australia and grown in the tropical and subtropical frost-free regions across the world for their nutritious

Open Access

Macadamia nut kernels ( Macadamia integrifolia, M. tetraphylla ) are very high in oil, accounting for about three-quarters of their weight ( Saleeb et al., 1973 ). The oil itself consists of ≈77% to 80% monounsaturated fat, 1% to 7% polyunsaturated

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Macadamia ( Macadamia integrifolia , Maiden & Betche) nut production is estimated to be a 22.2 million kilogram, $53.2 million industry in Hawaii ( USDA, 2018 ), and the largest macadamia production occurs in the United States. Current management

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