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Revised treatments of the genera Centrosema (DC.) Benth. (Leguminosae: Fabaceae) and Clitoris L. follow the style used in Hortus Third. Inventory of species, nomenclature, authorities, morphological descriptions, and distributions have been updated.

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Eastern redbud ( Cercis canadensis L.) and Texas redbud [ Cercis canadensis var. texensis (S. Watson) M. Hopkins] (Fabaceae Lindl. or Leguminosae Adans.) are popular landscape trees. Their moderate size, early spring flowering, and wide

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Flowers of Swainsona formosa (G. Don) J. Thompson (syn. Clianthus formosus) developed through seven floral stages from buds to open flowers in 17 days. Floral stages were correlated with the sigmoidal growth pattern of the peduncle. Self-pollination was prevented in the species by the presence of a stigmatic cuticle that precluded pollen germination until ruptured, exposing the receptive surface below. Cuticular rupture occurred in nature during bird-pollination and was emulated manually by lightly rubbing a pollen-covered finger across the stigma. The species was self-compatible, and to ensure cross-fertilization when breeding, emasculation before anther dehiscence was essential.

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Abstract

Although extensive studies of floral initiation and development have been reported for a large number of plants, floral initiation data is lacking for plants in the families Leguminosae and Oleaceae.

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The capacity to form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with rhizobia is common among species in the Papilionoideae subfamily of the Leguminosae, but nodulation and nitrogen fixation have never been documented in Cladrastis kentukea (Dum.-Cours.) Rudd (American yellowwood). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that C. kentukea is nodulated by rhizobia. Seedlings were grown in sterile vermiculite and irrigated with a nitrogen-free nutrient solution. In one experiment, the vermiculite was inoculated with rhizobia that nodulate Maackia amurensis Rupr. & Maxim., a closely related tree species. During a second experiment, the vermiculite was inoculated with samples of soil collected near trees of C. kentukea in a native stand in Alexander County, Illinois. There were no nodules on roots of seedlings harvested 6 weeks after inoculation in either experiment. These results represent strong additional evidence that C. kentukea does not form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with rhizobia.

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Jicama (Pachyrrhizas erosus L.) is a vigorous herbaceous vining plant of the Leguminosae family. Native to northern Central America and Mexico, it is produced commercially in Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and in warm regions of the southwestern United States. Also known as yam bean, Jicama produces a starchy edible root, although mature pods may be poisonous. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential for Jicama as a crop in southeastern Georgia and to get some information on the N requirement of the crop. Jicama seeds were planted on 29 May 1997 in three row plots. The planting was arranged with 61 cm between rows and 20 cm between plants in the row. Plots were 6 m long. Each plot received one of five N rates: 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 kg·ha-1. Treatments were replicated four times. Otherwise normal cultural practices were employed. Data were collected at harvest on 2 Dec. on number and weight of marketable roots, average root size, percent marketability, external and internal color, and root diameter. There were no significant differences among treatments for any of the parameters measured. However, most of the parameters measured showed some linear relationship to fertility level. Jicama produced under lower fertility levels revealed smaller roots, lower yield, and lower percent marketability. External color of roots with lower fertility levels were darker which may have contributed to a lower percent marketability. N fertilizer at between 60 and 120 kg·ha-1 seems most appropriate for this crop in southeastern Georgia.

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Ebenus cretica, Leguminosae, is a perennial bush endemic to the island of Crete, and produces attractive pinky red or purple flowers on 15-cm long racemes. To study the possibility of its use as a cut flower, cut inflorescences on 40-cm-long spikes were taken from plants grown outdoors in the farm of the Technological Educati Institute and used to determine the postharvest characteristics of Ebenus flowers. Without any postharvest treatments, the inflorescences held in water had an average life of about 7 days. A solution of 100 ppm 8-hydroxyquinone sulfate (HQS) in DI water, supplemented with 5% Ca(NO)3 increased vase life for 2 days and improved the water potential without affecting transpiration, whereas the addition of 2% or 5% sucrose decreased vase life by 1 or 2 days respectively. Pulsing with 0.2 mm STS for 2 h improved flower quality and vase life. Addition of 6-BAP (2 ppm) or GA3 (3 ppm) in the preservative solution did not affect flower quality or vase life compared to control. These results indicate that inflorescences of Ebenus cretica may be used as cut flowers; however, further research is required to determine their sensitivity to ethylene as well as its storage capabilities.

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Ebenus cretica, Leguminosae, an endemic perennial bush of Crete, is being studied as a potential new cut flower crop. Forty-centimeter-long spikes with two to three inflorescences and six to eight compound leaves were harvested from 5-year-old plants grown from seed at the farm of the TEI, when 1/3 of the florets had opened, and were treated with various preservatives. Flower quality was evaluated morphologically combined with measurements of chlorophyll content in leaves and anthocyanin in petals. Without any postharvest treatments, inflorescences held in a solution of 100 ppm 8-hydroxyquinone sulfate (HQS) in DI water had an average vaselife of 6.8 days. Pulsing with 0.6 mM silver thiosulfate (STS) for 2 h extended vaselife up to 8.4 days. However, when ethephon was added in the solution, vaselife was significantly reduced, causing leaf yellowing and flower senescence, which suggests sensitivity to exogenous ethylene. A solution of 0.2% Ca(NO3)2 prolonged vaselife by 2.7 days, whereas higher concentrations resulted in flower discoloration and decreased flower quality. Sucrose solutions of 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 4% had no positive effect on flower longevity. Furthermore, the higher concentrations caused leaf yellowing and petal discoloration decreasing vaselife and quality of flowers compared to control. Samples of inflorescences were taken every second day for chlorophyll (a and b) and anthocyanin measurements. The concentrations recorded were highest in the 0.2% Ca(NO3)2 treatment and were significantly correlated to flower longevity. Results indicate that Ebenus cretica may be used as a cut flower crop; however, due to the genetic variability of the Ebenus plants, a breeding line should be developed before the crop reaches the floricultural market.

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Ebenus cretica, Leguminosae, is a characteristic endemic plant of the Mediterranean island of Crete. It is a perennial bush up to 1 m tall with composite pubescent leaves and pinky red or purple flowers on 5- to 20-cm-long racemes. The fruit is surrounded by the calyx and contains one seed. The plants grow on rocky hillsides in alkaline soils at an altitude of up to 600 m and flower from April to June. Ebenus has the potential for use as a container or landscape flowering plant, and this study was aimed at finding methods to propagate it either by seed or by shoot cuttings. Seed collected from native plants in late July/Aug. 1992 germinated well (70% to 90%) without scarification in a commercial potting mix. Fifty percent of the seed germinated in vitro between 13 and 25 days, depending on temperature and substrate used. Temperatures of 25 or 30C in light at a pH ≈6.0 favored germination. Removal of the dry calyx coating the seed enhanced germination and emergence. For rooting Ebenus cuttings, several concentrations of IAA, IBA, and NAA were used in combination with different types of cuttings (soft or hardwood, tip or basal, cultivated or wild). Best results were obtained by wounding the base and dipping shoot-tip cuttings (12 cm long) in 600 mg IBA/liter for 16 hours. Significant differences, however, were observed among germination and rooting percentages when seeds or cuttings were taken from different plants due to genetic diversity. Therefore, selection is required for optimal results.

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