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LEDs are increasingly available and more efficacious ( PPFD per watt, PPFD /W) than incumbent high-intensity discharge (HID) light sources, making them attractive for horticulture (e.g., Gomez and Izzo, 2018 ; Jones, 2018 ; Massa and Norrie

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Solid-state lighting using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) represents a fundamentally different technology from the gaseous discharge-type lamps currently used in horticulture. Capabilities like spectral composition control and high light output with

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Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have a variety of advantages over traditional forms of horticultural lighting. Their small size, durability, long lifetime, cool emitting temperature, and the option to select specific wavelengths for a targeted plant

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test the feasibility of using LEDs to advance aspects of the horticulture industry [National Institute of Food and Agriculture Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI) Grant 2010-51181-21369, http://leds.hrt.msu.edu ]. Participation in this project

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LED technology is fundamentally altering the use and application of supplemental lighting for controlled environment agriculture. This paper provides a brief overview of the rapid development of LED lighting and some thoughts on the future

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halide (MH), fluorescent or light emitting diode (LED) lights, each with advantages and disadvantages for specific situations, most commonly relating to spectral output. HPS lighting is rich in orange–red wavelengths ( Fig. 2D ) with small amounts of blue

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(water source and fertilizer), light intensity, photoperiod, temperature, humidity, etc., should be well-defined. If LED lighting is applied, then additionally, the spectral quality of the light will need to be documented. These steps are taken to ensure

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intensity LEDs. Light-emitting diodes are solid-state, single junction semiconductors that are capable of producing light wavelengths as short as 250 nm and up to greater than 1000 nm. Thus, they are useful for testing specific wavelength combinations for

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choose from multiple types of supplemental lighting, including high-pressure sodium (HPS) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). HPS lighting is the most common type of supplemental lighting, while LEDs are becoming more commonly used in conjunction with, or

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( Currey et al., 2012 ; Lopez and Runkle, 2008 ; Pramuk and Runkle, 2005 ; Torres and Lopez, 2011 ). DLI can be increased during periods of low DLI with SL, which is usually provided by HPS lamps. LEDs have shown promise as SL in horticultural

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