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Robert C. Morrow

Solid-state lighting using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) represents a fundamentally different technology from the gaseous discharge-type lamps currently used in horticulture. Capabilities like spectral composition control and high light output with

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Gioia D. Massa, Hyeon-Hye Kim, Raymond M. Wheeler, and Cary A. Mitchell

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have a variety of advantages over traditional forms of horticultural lighting. Their small size, durability, long lifetime, cool emitting temperature, and the option to select specific wavelengths for a targeted plant

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Cary A. Mitchell

test the feasibility of using LEDs to advance aspects of the horticulture industry [National Institute of Food and Agriculture Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI) Grant 2010-51181-21369, ]. Participation in this project

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Gary W. Stutte

LED technology is fundamentally altering the use and application of supplemental lighting for controlled environment agriculture. This paper provides a brief overview of the rapid development of LED lighting and some thoughts on the future

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Joey H. Norikane

(water source and fertilizer), light intensity, photoperiod, temperature, humidity, etc., should be well-defined. If LED lighting is applied, then additionally, the spectral quality of the light will need to be documented. These steps are taken to ensure

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Wesley C. Randall and Roberto G. Lopez

intensity LEDs. Light-emitting diodes are solid-state, single junction semiconductors that are capable of producing light wavelengths as short as 250 nm and up to greater than 1000 nm. Thus, they are useful for testing specific wavelength combinations for

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Kim D. Bowman and Ute Albrecht

rootstock types under modern greenhouse conditions and in response to the use of modern supplemental HPS or LED lights. Supplemental light has been studied in many plant systems and has been shown to typically have large effects to improve or change plant

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Ricardo Hernández and Chieri Kubota

, 2014 ; Philips-Electronics, 2012 ). An alternative to HPS is the high-intensity LEDs, which currently have reportedly a PPF efficiency ranging between 0.84 and 2.3 μmol·J −1 ( Nelson and Bugbee, 2013 , 2014 ; Philips, 2014 ) and are projected to

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Yuya Mochizuki, Saori Sekiguchi, Naomi Horiuchi, Thanda Aung, and Isao Ogiwara

to changes in the light environment by controlling their morphology using receptors such as phytochromes, cryptochromes, and phototropin ( Ballare and Casal, 2000 ). Recently, LEDs came to the forefront as a light source in greenhouses because LEDs

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Dean A. Kopsell, Carl E. Sams, and Robert C. Morrow

active pigments based on wavelength ( McCree, 1973 ). Thus, the spectral distribution of light sources in plant production will determine photomorphogenic responses. LEDs now provide the option of selecting specific wavelengths to complement photoreceptor