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), and 1000 ppm IBA + 250 ppm 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, potassium salt (K-NAA) (Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts; Phytotronics, Earth City, MO). The control was water only (i.e., 0 ppm IBA, 0 ppm NAA). We combined 1000 ppm IBA with 250 ppm K-NAA to see an

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In five experiments, singlenode cuttings of `Red Cascade' miniature rose (Rosa) were treated with a basal quick-dip (prior to insertion into the rooting substrate) or sprayed to the drip point with a single foliar application (after insertion) of Dip `N Grow [indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)], the potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA), or the potassium salt of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (K-NAA); a single foliar spray application of Dip `N Grow with and without Kinetic surfactant; or multiple foliar spray applications of Dip `N Grow. Spray treatments were compared with their respective basal quick-dip controls {4920.4 μm [1000 mg·L-1 (ppm)] IBA + 2685.2 μm (500 mg·L-1) NAA, 4144.2 μm (1000 mg·L-1) K-IBA, or 4458.3 μm (1000 mg·L-1) K-NAA}. Cuttings sprayed with 0 to 246.0 μm (50 mg·L-1) IBA + 134.3 μm (25 mg·L-1) NAA, 0 to 207.2 μm (50 mg·L-1) K-IBA, or 0 to 222.9 μm (50 mg·L-1) K-NAA resulted in rooting percentages, total root length, percent rooted cuttings with shoots, and shoot length similar to or less than control cuttings. Exceptions were cuttings sprayed with 0 to 2.23 μm

(0.5 mg·L-1) K-NAA, which exhibited shoot length greater than the control cuttings. Addition of 1.0 mL·L-1 (1000 ppm) Kinetic organosilicone surfactant to spray treatments resulted in greater total root length and shoot length. Repeated sprays (daily up to seven consecutive days) had no or negative effects on root and shoot development.

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supplemented with 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 μ m dicamba, picloram, K-NAA, or 2,4-D. The PGRs and concentrations were selected based on previous reports of their use for other Lilium taxa ( Famelaer et al., 1996 ; Haensch, 1996 ; Okazaki and Koizumi, 1995

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control included Silwet L-77 at 0.025% v/v used in all plant growth regulator treatments at this rate); 2) 6-BA) [or N-(phenyl-methyl)-1H-purine-6-amine, at 50 mg a.i./L]; 3) NAA (K-Salt Fruit Fix ® at 10 mg a.i./L); 4) TIBA (at 100 mg a.i./L); and 5) and

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Shoot formation was obtained from Lachenalia arbuthnotiae W.F. Barker, L. bulbifera (Cyrillo) Engl., and L. purpureo-coerulea Jacq. leaf tissue explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with sucrose at 30 g·liter–1, 8.87 μm BA, and 0.44 μm K-NAA. Shoots of all three species rooted on subculture to MS medium supplemented with 0.0, 4.14, or 8.29 μm K-IBA or 0.0, 4.46, or 8.92 μm K-NAA. Maximum percent rooting was ≈81% from treatment with 4.14 μm K-IBA for L. arbuthnotiae and with 8.29 μm K-IBA for L. purpureo-coerulea; it was 59% from treatment with 8.92 μm K-NAA for L. bulbifera. Rooted and nonrooted shoots were acclimatized in a greenhouse. Survival of rooted plants was 93% for L. arbuthnotiae, 95% for L. bulbifera, and 94% for L. purpureo-coerulea. Survival of nonrooted shoots was 71% for L. arbuthnotiae and 91% for L. bulbifera. Chemical names used: 6-benzyladenine (BA); potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA); potassium salt of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (K-NAA).

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Shoot explants from actively growing, greenhouse-maintained plants of Baptisia `Purple Smoke' were cultured in vitro for shoot initiation on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium containing vitamins and supplemented with 30 g·L–1 sucrose, 8.87 μm BA, and 4.14 μm K-IBA. All subsequent media were supplemented with 2.47 mm NaH2PO4 to enhance shoot growth. Single-node explants were subcultured for shoot multiplication on MS medium with either no plant growth regulator or with 2.22, 4.44, 8.87, 17.74, or 35.48 mm BA in combination with 0.0 or 4.14 μm K-IBA. Explants produced a maximum of 4.1 shoots on the medium with 2.22 μm BA. Shoots rooted on all concentrations of K-IBA (2.07, 4.14, 10.36, or 20.72 μm) and K-NAA (2.23, 4.46, 11.15, or 22.29 μm) tested. Maximum rooting was 100% on MS medium with 11.15 μm K-NAA; however, this treatment induced copious stem callusing. Rooted shoots were greenhouse-acclimatized for 2.5 weeks. Overall survival was 86%. For optimal rooting and subsequent acclimatization, treatment with 2.23 μm K-NAA is recommended; this resulted in 83% rooting and 87% acclimatization. Chemical names used: N 6 benzyladenine (BA); potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA); potassium salt of 1-naphthalene acetic acid (K-NAA).

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Shoot initiation and multiplication were obtained in vitro from immature flower bud and leaf explants of Veltheimia bracteata Bak. `Lemon Flame' and from leaf explants of V. bracteata `Rosalba' cultured on a Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with sucrose at 30 g•L–1, and either 8.87 μm BA plus 0.54 μm NAA or 8.87 μm BA plus 5.40 μm NAA. Shoot initiation and multiplication was obtained from a single leaf explant of Veltheimia capensis (L.) DC. on MS medium with 8.87 μm BA plus 0.54 μm NAA. Shoots of the three genotypes rooted on subculture to medium with 0.0, 4.14, or 8.29 μm K-IBA or 0.0, 4.46, or 8.92 μm K-NAA. Maximal rooting was 98% for V. bracteata `Lemon Flame', 95% for V. bracteata `Rosalba', and 98% for V. capensis, from medium with 4.46 μm KNAA. Rooted shoots were acclimatized for 3 to 4 weeks. Overall survival percentage was 69% for V. bracteata `Lemon Flame', 65% for V. bracteata `Rosalba', and 83% for V. capensis. Chemical names used: 6-benzyladenine (BA); potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA); potassium salt of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (K-NAA); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

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Abstract

Rapid clonal multiplication of Pinguicula moranensis H.B.K., an “orchid-flowered” butterwort, was achieved on 1/5-strength Linsmaier-Skoog medium with 30 g/liter sucrose, pH 6.5, 6 g/liter agar, 0.02 mg/liter 6-benzylamino purine (BA), and 0.01-0.10 mg/liter naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

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Abstract

Dipping root systems of scarlet oak seedlings (Quercus coccinea Juench.) in 3-indolebutyric acid potassium salt (K-IBA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), 2,4,5-trichloropropanoic acid (2,4,5-TP), β-naphtoxy acetic acid (NOAA), or naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) induced a 6-fold increase in adventitious root regeneration, as compared to control seedlings. Time to first root initiation was increased and root elongation rate was decreased for auxin-treated seedlings relative to untreated controls. Under field conditions, one-year-old seedlings treated with NAA at 3000 mg/liter or K-IBA at 1000 or 3000 mg/liter regenerated more roots and developed greater root length than did control plants. Toothpicks impregnated with a 1000 mg/liter K-IBA solution and inserted into tap roots stimulated a 16-fold increase in roots and an 18-fold increase in root length as compared to control seedlings.

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Abstract

Ethephon at 3, 6, and 12 mm induced abscission of mature foliage on pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh) K. Koch] seedlings. This effect was offset to varying degrees using NAA at 3, 6, or 12 mm in which NAA acted as an effective antidote to ethephon and presumably ethylene. Abscission varied with leaf age and with the relative timing of leaf treatment with ethephon and NAA. Leaves treated with NAA 6 days prior to ethephon treatment were much more sensitive to ethephon induced abscission than those treated one day prior to, at time of, or one day after ethephon sprays. There were no abscission response differences among the 3 latter NAA treatment times. Ethephon greatly reduced 14C-IAA transport in leaf midrib tissue and increased the amount of IAA conjugated in leaf tissue without changing free IAA levels. It is suggested that ethephon treatment reduces the amount of IAA transported from the leaf blade to the abscission zone by inhibiting auxin transport in vascular tissue. IAA inactivation by conjugation appears to have no influence on the IAA level reaching the cells of the abscission zone. Chemical names used: (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

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