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  • Juniperus virginiana x
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species and other plants with invasive tendencies ( Howard et al. 2022 ). References cited Anderson M . 2003 . Juniperus virginiana : In: Fire Effects Information System (FEIS). https

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. 2021 . Extraction and purification of podophyllotoxin from eastern red cedar ( Juniperus virginiana L.) in Oklahoma (MS Thesis). Oklahoma State Univ, Stillwater, OK, USA. Thomas M , Jensen KL , Lambert DM , English BC , Clark CD

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Abstract

Detached cuttings of Juniperus virginiana ‘Skyrocket’ and J. sabina ‘Blue Danube’ were grafted and rooted together under intermittent mist. Successful grafts and rooting were 46% by a paired-cutting procedure, 57% by conventional side grafting, and 75% by a new procedure, in which grafted cuttings were held together by a styrofoam block.

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Harvested eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) Christmas trees coated with combinations of latex-based green colorant and needle sticker were observed for 2 weeks at 20C. Green colorant reduced drying rates and helped maintain a better water status following dehydration. Even though these materials improve postharvest water relations, their primary value with respect to marketing and use of eastern redcedar Christmas trees is to impart a better color and/or mask the prickliness of juvenile foliage.

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Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) seedlings were grown in 1986 through 1988 in pine bark container media with various levels of dolomitic limestone and micronutrients. Supplemental micronutrients reduced shoot growth, especially in the absence of limestone, and root growth was greatest when neither limestone nor micronutrients were added. Including at least 3.0 kg limestone/m3 in the medium was beneficial, not only as a source of nutrients, but also as a buffer against potentially toxic effects of excess micronutrients.

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Postharvest drying of Leyland cypress [× Cupressocyparis leylandii (A.B. Jacks. & Dallim.)] branches was intermediate between eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) and Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] in two laboratory experiments. Leyland cypress rehydrated without adverse effect until xylem pressure potential reached –4.0 to –5.0 MPa (shoot moisture content = 60% to 65%). For branches continuously maintained in water, Fraser fir and Leyland cypress kept equally well over 4 weeks of display, but Leyland cypress lasted longer than Fraser fir over 8 weeks. Postharvest keeping quality of Leyland cypress and Fraser fir was better than that of eastern red cedar.

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As part of the continuing search for chemicals which stimulate or retard growth of tree species, the growth regulator N, N’-dinitroethylenediamine (EDNA)2 was applied to red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) and to American arborvitae (Thuja Occidentalis L.). Holmsen3 reported that low amounts of EDNA stimulated a broad spectrum of growth increases in many herbaceous plants, including height growth in bean, leaf area in cabbage, dry weight in a rye-grass-clover mixture and protein content in wheat. He also reported that high amounts inhibited height growth of tobacco.

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Foliar raffinose and sucrose concentrations in eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.), eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), Leyland cypress (×Cupressocyparis leylandii Dallim.), and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana L.) were measured monthly over 2 years. During cold weather, foliage of white pine and redcedar contained higher concentrations of raffinose and sucrose than did Leyland cypress and Virginia pine. Rafflnose concentrations were highest during winter and were best correlated with the frequency of occurrence of daily minima ≤ 1.7C during the 30 days before sampling. Sucrose concentrations, which also reached maximum levels during the winter, were best correlated with the frequency of occurrence of daily minima ≤ 7.2C in the prior 30 days. Sucrose concentrations were relatively high during fall and spring. Raffinose and sucrose concentrations increased in response to recurring low temperature, with correlations highest for raffinose.

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Terminal stem cuttings of four evergreens [arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis L.), `Calgary Carpet' juniper (Juniperus sabina L.), `Hetzii' juniper (Juniperus virginiana L.), and Tamarix juniper (Juniperus sabina L.)] and four deciduous {Amur maple (Acer ginnala Maxim.), common lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.), ninebark [Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim.], and viburnum (Viburnum farreri Stearn)} woody landscape shrubs were treated with 0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.8% IBA mixed in talc or with 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, or 1.5% IBA dissolved in 95% ethanol, radiator antifreeze (95% ethylene glycol), or windshield washer fluid (47.5% methanol). None of the carriers were phytotoxic to the cuttings. Cuttings treated with IBA in radiator antifreeze or windshield washer fluid produced rooting in most taxa similar to those treated with IBA in ethanol. Cuttings of the evergreen taxa produced more roots with liquid than with talc IBA at similar concentration ranges. There were some differences in rooting performance (expressed in terms of percent rooting, mean root count per rooted cutting, and length of the longest root per cutting) of taxa to solvents and IBA concentrations. However, such differences, if any, were generally small or commercially insignificant, except for ninebark, which rooted optimally with no IBA and exhibited a large reduction in percent rooting with increasing IBA concentrations in windshield washer fluid. Chemical name used: indolebutyric acid (IBA).

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Hardwood stem cuttings of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), taken from containerized stock plants fertilized weekly with 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, or 640 ppm N, were treated with 7500 ppm IBA and placed under intermittent mist for 12 weeks. Foliar starch and sucrose concentrations within cuttings at time of excision were significantly correlated with percent rooting and root length, respectively. Of the mineral nutrients analyzed (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and B), only B and K were significantly correlated with rooting response. A threshold N level (20 ppm), applied weekly, maximized rooting; higher concentrations decreased response. Although N fertilization of stock plants affected adventitious rooting, there were no significant correlations between foliar N levels and measures of rooting response. Chemical name used: 1 H- indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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