, percentage of root crown length rotted and B , percentage of root rot. On x axis, cal = Juglanscalifornica , nig = J. nigra , reg = J. regia , hin = J. hindsii , maj = J. major , mic = J. microcarpa , and ste = Pterocarya stenoptera . Fig. 2
Genetic variation in vigor, phenology, and branching in juvenile seedlings of Juglans californica and J. hindsii was investigated. Significant differences between species were detected in traits that reflect vigor (height, diameter, volume), in phenological traits (dates of leafing out and leaf drop), and in branching. J. californica was generally more vigorous, more branched, leafed out earlier, and dropped leaves later than J. hindsii. When species were analyzed separately, seed source was a highly significant source of variation for phenological traits and branching in J. hindsii. Upper estimates of heritability for phenological traits ranged from 0.47 to 0.88. The results of this study suggest that J. hindsii may have had a history of differentiation and adaptation to latitude, elevation, or other climatic characters. Conservation of germplasm resources in J. hindsii will be essential to maintain the purity of the species and to provide resources for studying the species and breeding rootstock for J. regia, the Persian walnut.
In a comparison of six walnut rootstocks either nursery-grafted or field-grafted to `Chandler' (Juglans regia), the highest-yielding trees after 9 years are on either seedling or clonal Paradox rootstocks. Trees growing on both Paradox rootstocks had higher yield efficiency than trees on the black rootstocks in both 1995 and 1996. Since 1993, relative tree size based on trunk circumference has not changed: southern California black (J. californica), seedling Paradox and northern California black (J. Hindsii) have remained significantly larger than clonal Paradox, Texas (J. microcarpa) or Arizona (J. major) black rootstocks. The smaller size of clonal as compared with seedling Paradox trees might be explained by a delay in field grafting success. Although both northern and southern California black rootstock trees were significantly larger than clonal Paradox trees, they did not differ significantly in yield and had significantly lower yield efficiency in 1996. Clonal Paradox trees have significantly smaller nut size than northern California black rootstock trees that can be explained by its higher yield efficiency. An adjacent trial planted in 1991 compares micropropagated `Chandler' on its own root vs. `Chandler' on seedling Paradox rootstock. In 1995 and 1996, own-rooted `Chandler' had significantly greater trunk circumference, yield, and yield efficiency than did `Chandler' on Paradox rootstock. Many of the trees on Paradox rootstock are growing very poorly compared to the own rooted trees. This could be due to diversity within the Paradox seed source. If own-rooted `Chandler' trees become commercially available, they may have potential in areas where other rootstocks are undesirable because of hypersensitivity to cherry leafroll virus.
walnut rootstocks, suitable to various walnut management conditions and resistant to P. cinnamomi, is a priority worldwide. Browne et al. (2015) indicate that genotypes of J. microcarpa, and hybrids: ( Juglanscalifornica × Juglans nigra ) × J
walnut species such as northern california black walnut, southern california black walnut ( Juglanscalifornica S. Watson), black walnut, arizona walnut ( Juglans major Torr., A. Heller), and butternut, and three species of wingnut ( Hishinuma et al
Armillaria root disease affects orchards in all Juglans regia (Persian walnut)-growing regions of California ( Gardner and Raabe, 1963 ). The causal agent is Armillaria mellea (Basidiomycota, Physalacriaceae), which attacks walnut and other
( Prunus dulcis ), walnut ( Juglans regia ), and chestnut ( Castanea sp.). Turkey produces ≈70% of the world’s hazelnut crop (742,997 t in 2011) followed by Italy (≈15%) and the United States (≈5%) ( Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations