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Loughin. Appreciation is extended to Mike Uchneat and Pan American Seed Co. (West Chicago, Ill.) for providing impatiens seed. The use of trade names in this publication does not imply endorsement by the KAES of products named nor criticism of similar ones

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Most seed produced impatiens today are F1 hybrids. The seed of F1 hybrids is produced by hand-emasculation of the seed parent or the use of some types of male sterility system. The male sterility systems used in impatiens breeding have never been reported, and is proprietary information of seed companies. The objective of this study was to investigate the types of male sterility involved in impatiens. Eighteen inbreds and 14 hybrids were investigated. One sterile inbred line was selected and crossed with several inbred fertile lines for inheritance analysis. The F1 progenies were all fertile, and backcrossed to the sterile parent. The F2 and backcross populations indicate that the inheritance is controlled by a single recessive ms gene. Information concerning with a possibility of cytoplasmic-nuclear gene interaction will be discussed.

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The role of light on impatiens seed germination and radicle emergence was studied. Seeds having a photodormancy require light for only part of the germination period. Germination ≥85% was achieved after 3, 2, or 1 day of irradiance at 1.5, 15, or 75 μmol·s-1·m-2, respectively. Keeping imbibed seeds in darkness for ≥2 days before light exposure caused reduced total germination percentages (G), delayed achieving 50% of the final germination percentage (T50), and increased the days between 10% and 90% germination (T90-T10). Light for 6 hours daily at 1.5, 15, or 150 μmol·s-1·m-2 promoted high G and rapid and uniform germination, but daily 12 to 24 hours of irradiance decreased G and increased T50 and T90-T10. Estimated rates of decline (increase) in G, T50, or T90-T10 with each added day of light (darkness) or increasing daily hours of light were measured by fitting regression equations. Impatiens seed germination was promoted by the initial 1 to 3 days of light, but light inhibited radicle extension in the latter germination stages.

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Western flower thrips are an ever-increasing problem in greenhouse floriculture crops. Thrips resistance to pesticides as well as tighter regulations on pesticide use are making thrips management in the greenhouse more difficult. To improve host plant resistance, a study was conducted to determine if impatiens cultivars varied in their susceptibility to western flower thrips feeding damage. In a replicated study, nine impatiens cultivars were inoculated with about 30 thrips. Thrips were allowed to feed on individual plants during an 8-week period of growth. During plant growth, visual evaluations to estimate thrips feeding damage were conducted every 2 weeks. At the conclusion of the experiment, a final visual evaluation was made and thrips numbers were determined. Cultivars varied in estimates of thrips feeding damage. Several cultivars exhibited significantly reduced levels of thrips feeding damage. Of these cultivars, some had high thrips population levels, indicating tolerance, while other cultivars had low thrips population levels, an indication of antibiosis. One cultivar was determined to be highly susceptible to thrips feeding damage. This cultivar was so damaged by the end of the study, remaining plant material was unable to support thrips populations. Variability was found in the levels of thrips feeding damage and thrips population levels indicating the presence of tolerance and/or antibiosis. Because of detected variability, the potential for improving impatiens resistance to thrips feeding damages exists.

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N in the NH 4 + form ( Gaffney et al., 1982 ; Jeong and Lee, 1992 ; Schrock and Goldsberry, 1982 ). Minimal effect of the NO 3 – to NH 4 + ratio on plant shoot growth had been observed on Impatiens wallerana Hook F. ( Argo and Biernbaum, 1997

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, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on greenhouse impatiens, Impatiens wallerana Hook.f. cv ‘Impulse Orange,’ using the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) Dept. of Entomology, Kansas State Univ

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at 25 ± 1 °C ( Polking et al., 1994 ). Table 1. Effects of a 4-d, low-oxygen, modified-atmosphere treatment followed by 24 h in air in dark as a simulated shipping period (SSP) on germinated Impatiens wallerana Hook. F. ‘Super Elfin White’ seedling

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volume. Plugs of ‘Ringo Scarlet’ and ‘Ringo Coral’ geraniums [ Pelargonium × hortorum (Bailey. L.H.)] and ‘Super Elfin White’ and ‘Super Elfin Salmon’ impatiens [ Impatiens wallerana (Hook. F.)] were transplanted into the containers. The geraniums had

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Repetitive testing of Impatiens Wallerana seed by the producer, the flower seed broker, and a commercial greenhouse operator, has led to agreement of final germination percentages but no agreement in vigor rating of these lots.

The results of this testing as well as a discussion of the requirements of commercial flower seed growers will be presented.

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Impatiens (Impatiens wallerana Hook.f.) flower seeds are believed to be sensitive to storage temperature and humidity conditions. A study was conducted to evaluate seed quality changes occurring during a 1-year period of storage under various temperature and humidity combinations. Four seed lots of `Super Elfin Red' and `Super Elfin White' impatiens were studied. Constant humidity treatments were obtained using saturated salt solutions; 15% relative humidity (RH) with LiCI, 25% RH with KAc, 33% RH with MgCl2, and 43% RH with K2CO3. Constant temperature treatments were 5, 15, and 22C. At 3-month intervals, replicate samples were sown in plug flats in the greenhouse. Seed quality was evaluated as the percentage of usable seedlings 21 days from sowing. Rapid deterioration of seed quality was seen under high temperature and high humidity storage conditions. Seeds became less sensitive to humidity at 5C. Conditions of 20% to 25% RH and 5C are recommended for impatiens seed storage.

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