in this study included ‘Princess Golden’ pot marigold ( Calendula officinalis ), ‘Lucinda Mix’ stock ( Matthiola incana ), ‘Double Mix’ strawflower ( Helichrysum bracteatum ), ‘Dara’ ornamental carrot ( Daucus carota ), and ‘Celway Mix’ cockscomb
Samantha R. Nobes, Karen L. Panter, and Randa Jabbour
Jessica Phillips, James M. Garner, and Allan M. Armitage
Five taxa of Helichrysum Mill. and Brachycome Cass. were recently evaluated for greenhouse production and amenity use. Preliminary studies on the influence of photoperiod, temperature, and growth regulators were conducted for H. bracteatum Vent., (syn Bracteantha bracteata) `Sunray' and `Matilda Yellow', H. apiculatum D.C, (syn Chrysocephalum apiculatum) `Golden Buttons' and Brachycome iberidifolia Benth. `Jumbo Mauve' and `Mauve Delight'. All taxa of Helichrysum were quantitative LD plants, flowering slightly more rapidly under night-break (2200-0200 HR) and extended day incandescent lighting, compared with 9-h short-day treatment. No influence of photoperiod occurred with cultivars of Brachycome. Constant temperature of 12, 20, or 28 °C were provided and all taxa demonstrated a linear decrease in flowering time as temperatures increased. The growth index (average of height and two measurements of width) was also influenced by temperature. Paclobutrazol and daminozide were applied at different concentrations and frequencies. Paclobutrazol was more effective than daminozide in both genera, and daminozide was ineffective in Brachycome.
Millie S. Williams, Terri W. Starman, and James E. Faust
The photoperiodic responses were determined for the following species: Bacopa speciosa `Snowflake', Bidens ferulifolium, Brachycome multifida `Crystal Falls', Helichrysum bracteatum'Golden Beauty', Lysimachia procumbens (Golden Globes), Pentas lanceolata `Starburst', Scaevola aemula `New Blue Wonder', Streptocarpella hybrid `Concord Blue', and Streptosolen jamesonii (Orange Browallia). Each plant species was grown at 8-, 10-, 12-, 14-, and 16-hour photoperiods. Photoperiods were provided by delivering 8 hours sunlight, then pulling black cloth and providing daylength extension with incandescent bulbs. Bacopa speciosa `Snowflake', Bidens ferulifolium, Brachycome multifida `Crystal Falls', Helichrysum bracteatum `Golden Beauty', Scaevola aemula `New Blue Wonder', and Streptocarpella hybrid `Blue Concord' were day neutral, i.e., no difference in days to visible bud or days to anthesis in response to photoperiod were observed. Pentas lanceolata `Starburst' and Lysimachia procumbens (Golden Globes) were quantitative long day plants, i.e., days to anthesis decreased as daylength increased. No difference in days to visible bud, number of lateral shoots, number of nodes, or internode length were observed for Pentas lanceolata `Starburst'; however, days to anthesis for 14- and 16-hour photoperiods occurred 9 days earlier than 8-hour photoperiods. Days to visible bud for Lysimachia procumbens (Golden Globes) occurred 7 days earlier and days to anthesis was 9 days earlier under 14- and 16-hour photoperiods than 8-hour photoperiods. By week 8, only one flower per plant developed in the 8-hour photoperiod while 11 flowers per plant developed in the 14-hour photoperiod. Streptosolen jamesonii (Orange Browallia) was a qualitative short day plant. There was no difference in the days to anthesis between 8- and 10-hour daylength, each averaging 36 days from start of photoperiod treatment. Plants under 12- to 16-hour photoperiods did not flower.
Shi-Ying Wang, William H. Carlson, and Royal D. Heins
Argeranthemum frutescens `Butterfly' and `Sugar Baby', Brachycome hybrid `Ultra', Helichrysum bracteatum `Golden Beauty', Scaevola aemula `New Wonder',Supertunia axillaris hybrids `Kilkenny Bells' and `Pink Victory', Sutera cordata `Mauve Mist' and `Snowflake', and Verbena hybrid `Blue' were grown in a glass greenhouse maintained at 20°C under seven different photoperiods (10-, 12-, 13-, 14-, 16-, 24-hr, and 4-hr night interruption). Black cloth was pulled at 1700 and opened at 0800 HR; incandescent lamps provided 2 μmol·m–2·s–1 to extend light hours to the designed photoperiods. Seedlings were pinched 3 days after transplant. Responses to photoperiod were clearly species-dependent. The tested species can be classified into three groups: 1) stem elongation and flowering were promoted in the long-day treatment (A. frutescens and S. axillaris hybrids), 2) only stem elongation was promoted in the long-day treatment (S. aemula, H. bracteatum, and B. hybrid), and 3) neither flowering nor stem elongation were affected by photoperiod (S. cordata and V. hybrid).
Terri Woods Starman and James E. Faust
The objective was to provide options for hanging basket production schedules by varying the number of plants per pot (one to four) and the number of manual pinches per basket (zero to two). Several species were evaluated in Spring 1995 and heat tolerance was assessed throughout the summer. Plugs (82 plugs per flat) were transplanted into 25-cm hanging baskets in a 22/18°C (venting/night temperature set points) glasshouse. Bacopa speciosa `Snowflake', Brachycome iberidifolia `Crystal Falls', Helichrysum bracteatum `Golden Beauty', Scaevola aemula `New Blue Wonder', and Streptocarpella hybrid `Concord Blue' produced quality baskets with three or more plugs per basket and no pinch. Pentas lanceolata `Starburst' and Lysimachia procumbens (Golden Globes) produced quality baskets with fewer than three plants per basket if plants received at least one pinch, however length of growing time was increased. Pentas lanceolata `Starburst', Scaevola aemula `New Blue Wonder', and Streptocarpella hybrid `Concord Blue' proved to be heat tolerant, blooming throughout the summer. Bacopa speciosa `Snowflake', Brachycome iberidifolia `Crystal Falls', and Lysimachia procumbens (Golden Globes) were not heat tolerant, i.e., ceased developing flowers in June and resumed flowering in September. Bidens ferulifolium did not produce an acceptable quality hanging basket under any experimental treatments.