, some of these island species’ ovules are more exposed to airborne pollen than ovules of other cycads. The island of Guam began as submarine volcanic deposits in the Eocene ≈43 million years ago (mya), but land mass aerial exposure occurred much later
Trenton Hamada, Irene Terry, Robert Roemer, and Thomas E. Marler
James McConnell, Louise Q. Naholowaa, and Mari Marutani
A survey was conducted in Guam to determine the preferred uses and preferred flowers and foliage for leis and mwarmwars. Mwarmwars are a form of lei that is worn on the head. Mwarmwars were introduce to Guam by Carolinians. Lei giving is popular for special occasions to signify honored guests, as a token to loved ones, or given to travelers. In Guam, it is popular to give mwarmwars and leis as gifts to middle school, high school and college students. Preferred characteristics of flowers and foliage are wilt resistance and those that are not fragile. The most popular flowers are orchids, plumeria, mini carnations, baby's breath, bougainvillea, alstromeria, crown flowers, mini daisies, red ginger, spray roses, and sweetheart roses. The most popular foliage are leather leaf fern, polyscias, ti leaf, asparagus fern, and lemon leaves. The majority of the flowers and foliage are imported.
Mari Marutani, John Brown, Mark Acosta, Joseph Sablan, Sheeka Afaisen, and James McConnell
A grant to construct a “Model Farm” on Guam and the Virgin Islands was approved in 2000 by the USDA/CSREES/Initiative for Future Agriculture and Food Systems Program. The main goal was to establish an integrated model farm that had potential benefits for small agricultural enterprises operated by Asian-Pacific and Caribbean Islanders. University of Guam Triton Farm was established on 3.75 acres (1.5 ha) of the Agricultural Experiment Station. Initially we conducted a soil survey, and established windbreaks/hedgerows. We also built the foundation for aquaculture/aquaponic system, field irrigation systems, and animal production facilities. Then, we planted long-term fruit and ornamental plants while growing short-term vegetable crops for quick returns. Currently we raise tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), goats (Capra hercus) and layer-chickens (Gallus gallus). We grow banana (Musa spp.), calamansi (X Citrofortunello mitis, hot peppers (Capsicum spp.), cucumbers (Cucumis sativus), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), eggplants (Solanum melongena), and Ti-leaf (Cordyline terminalis). We also try to develop value-added products using local produce. Occasionally we investigate other potential commodities and operational schemes for the farm. These must be suitable for Guam's agro-climate and social and economic structure. We focus on conservation of natural materials, composting, and sustainable agriculture. Education and outreach activity is also an important component of the farm to disseminate technologies and to educate young children about farming.
Thomas E. Marler, Vivian Lee, and Christopher A. Shaw
Consumption of Cycas micronesica seed tissue has been associated with the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis–parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS–PDC) of the Western Pacific. However, failures to document vital plant and neighborhood descriptors and pronounced variability in toxin concentrations noted within and among studies obfuscate decades of research on this subject. We discuss the theoretical and experimental constraints of plant tissue sampling in relation to human disease research. Comparisons are made between this approach and methods used throughout the history of ALS–PDC research, most notably very recent reports concerning β-methyl-amino-alanine. Methods for studying possible plant neurotoxins need to be standardized and must follow rigorous criteria to be valid in principle. Our discussions reveal why these criteria are essential and highlight the impact that natural variations have on environmental toxin quantification and interpretation. Past research on cycad toxins is deficient on experimental and theoretical grounds, and interpretation of published data is dominated by ambiguities. This area of study as conventionally conceived and carried out needs transforming. We argue that future empirical studies should honor appropriate plant science standards concomitantly with medical science standards. This dual focus will ensure appropriate sampling scheme, sample size, and reporting of background plant and community factors known to influence phenotypic plasticity.
Plants native to Guam are being evaluated for use in the Guam landscape. The selected plants are being propagated by seed and/or cutting. The genera currently being evaluated and propagated include Scaevola, Eleaocarpus, Ochrosia, Guamia, Pemphis, and Bikkia. Variation in flower color and floral fragrance were observed in Scaevola and selections have been made. There has been some difficulty establishing some of the plants in the landscape environment. There have been some significant insect problems occurring on established plants.
Thomas E. Marler and Nirmala Dongol
in age. These results may be useful for defining developmental stages which may improve propagation protocols. Materials and Methods Field methods. The experimental site was located in northern Guam, centered at 13°38′43 ′′ N, 144°51′30 ′′ E, in
Glenn Takai* and Mari Marutani
Hot peppers (Capsicum sp.) were introduced to Guam and other Mariana Islands and became a “necessary” ingredient of local cuisine. Seven hot pepper accessions, including four local cultivars, were grown in calcareous soils on Guam and evaluated for total yield, marketable yield, the number of fruit, and weight of fruit. `Hot Beauty', a Taiwan cultivar, produced the highest total and marketable yields. `Group Zest', another Taiwan cultivar, was the earliest maturing cultivar and produced the largest fruits. `Guafi', a local cultivar, was the latest maturing cultivar. Consumer preference for hot pepper is being studied as fresh market and as processed hot sauce.
Cultivars of heliconias were evaluated for use in Guam as a cut flower and in the landscape. Forty-five cultivars were planted at three locations in Guam. Due to insufficient plant material, the evaluation was preliminary. Noteworthy differences were observed among the cultivars. Differences were noted in time to establish, frequency of flowering, and resistance to wind damage. Establishment required large quantities of water. Once established, some cultivars appeared to be drought-tolerant; however, feral pigs and carabao became a problem due to massive mechanical damage. Typhoons also caused severe damage to the foliage. Rhizomes did not suffer obvious damage, resulting in recovery within 1 year. Heliconias as a cut flower does not appear feasible. As a landscape plant, heliconias should be given further consideration.
M. Marutani, L. Yudin, D. Nafus, F. Cruz, and V. Santos
The outbreak of a new whitefly was first reported in Summer 1993 at two sites in the southern part of Guam. Vegetable crops heavily damaged by this pest included cucumber, yardlong beans, and tomato. At present, the whitefly is found infesting tomato, eggplants, cucumbers, watermelon, and other vegetable crops throughout the island. The whitefly was identified as Bemisia argentifolii with the characteristics of a wide host range and the presence of silvering leaves on cucurbits. A larval parasitoid was recovered from eggplant and tomato leaves. The efficacy of pesticides against the pest is being investigated.
Thomas E. Marler, Vivian Lee, and Christopher A. Shaw
horticultural requirements. Guam's Cycas micronesica K.D. Hill is the island's only native gymnosperm and America's only native Cycas species. Exposure to secondary metabolites that act as neurotoxins via direct ingestion of seed gametophyte tissue from