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Alexander G. Litvin, Marc W. van Iersel, and Anish Malladi

and held until further analysis. Identification of gibberellin metabolism and cell expansion-related genes. Tomato genes potentially associated with the regulation of later stages of GA metabolism ( GA20ox , GA3ox , and GA2ox ), GA signaling ( DELLA

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Nobutaka Shiraiwa, Kaori Kikuchi, Ichiro Honda, Masayoshi Shigyo, Hiroko Yamazaki, Daisuke Tanaka, Kenji Tanabe, and Akihiro Itai

( Chiang et al., 1995 , 1997 ) and GA4H ( Yamaguchi et al., 1998 ), pea LE ( Lester et al., 1997 ; Martin et al., 1997 ), rice OsGA3ox1 and OsGA3ox2 ( Itoh et al., 2001 ), barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) Hv3ox1 and Hv3ox2 ( Spielmeyer et al., 2004

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Kai Zhao, Feng Zhang, Yi Yang, Yue Ma, Yuexue Liu, He Li, Hongyan Dai, and Zhihong Zhang

20-ox gene encoded by a gene family whose members show differential expression patterns ( Hedden and Phillips, 2000 ), whereas in Arabidopsis thaliana , GA20-ox were encoded by five genes. GA20-ox1 , GA20-ox2 , and GA20-ox3 are important to

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Jennifer Han, Jan E. Murray, Qingyi Yu, Paul H. Moore, and Ray Ming

(GA20ox), GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox). Arabidopsis has almost twice the number of enzymes for each family compared with papaya. GA20ox and GA3ox are involved in forming bioactive GAs, whereas GA2ox functions to deactivate bioactive

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Xiaohua Yang, Susan K. Brown, and Peter J. Davies

the sequential oxidation of GA 53 to GA 20 )] primarily functions in immature seeds ( Kusaba et al., 2001 ; Zhao et al., 2010 ), whereas MdGA3ox1 [GA-3oxidase (catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of bioactive GAs)] and MdGA2ox1 [GA-2oxidase

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Aneta K. Studzinska, David S. Gardner, James D. Metzger, David Shetlar, Robert Harriman, and T. Karl Danneberger

conversion of GA20 to GA1 × 3-β-hydroxylase, reducing leaf cell elongation ( Adams et al., 1992 ) but not cell division ( Ervin and Koski, 2001 ). However, to ensure consistent and lasting effects, frequent applications of TE are required. In plants

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Suxiao Hao, Yanfen Lu, Jing Liu, Yufen Bu, Qi Chen, Nan Ma, Zhiqin Zhou, and Yuncong Yao

effect on the expression of KO ( Fig. 5A ). The transcription levels of KAO , KS, and GA20ox genes, all of which are also related to GA biosynthesis, were upregulated in the plants treated with GA 3 but were downregulated in the plants treated

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Po-Hung Wu and Doris C.N. Chang

., 2000 ). Using plant growth substances such as GA 3 or N-6-benzyladenine (BA) separately at high temperatures failed to induce phalaenopsis to spike or bloom ( Chen et al., 1994 , 1997 ; Kubota et al., 1997 ). However, Chen et al. (1994) injection

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Irfan Ali Sabir, Xunju Liu, Songtao Jiu, Matthew Whiting, and Caixi Zhang

constant level (GA homeostasis). GA homeostasis can be established in plant tissues by suppressing GA biosynthesis and promoting GA catabolism. Reduced expression of the GA biosynthetic genes GA20ox and GA3ox is considered to facilitate biosynthesis

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Taifeng Zhang, Jiajun Liu, Sikandar Amanullah, Zhuo Ding, Haonan Cui, Feishi Luan, and Peng Gao

; Sun, 1992 ; Winkler, 1995 ) and expressed as mutant genes in different plant types ( Hedden and Phillips, 2001 ). Mainly, GA 3β-hydroxylase catalyzes the absolute activity in the GA biosynthesis pathway ( Yamaguchi, 2008 ), and its pivotal role in