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Alexander G. Litvin, Marc W. van Iersel, and Anish Malladi

and held until further analysis. Identification of gibberellin metabolism and cell expansion-related genes. Tomato genes potentially associated with the regulation of later stages of GA metabolism ( GA20ox , GA3ox , and GA2ox ), GA signaling ( DELLA

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Aneta K. Studzinska, David S. Gardner, James D. Metzger, David Shetlar, Robert Harriman, and T. Karl Danneberger

, inactivation of bioactive gibberellins GA1 and GA4 is ensured by GA2-oxidases (GA2ox) that catalyze their 2β-hydroxylation yielding GA8 and GA34 ( Hedden and Proebsting, 1999 ). Overexpression of OsGA2ox1 in rice caused a dwarf phenotype with leaves that were

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Kai Zhao, Feng Zhang, Yi Yang, Yue Ma, Yuexue Liu, He Li, Hongyan Dai, and Zhihong Zhang

stages of GA biosynthesis require the action of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, including the GA20-ox that catalyzes the penultimate step in the formation of bioactive GA, and has been shown to be an important regulator in GA biosynthesis pathway

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Nobutaka Shiraiwa, Kaori Kikuchi, Ichiro Honda, Masayoshi Shigyo, Hiroko Yamazaki, Daisuke Tanaka, Kenji Tanabe, and Akihiro Itai

( Chiang et al., 1995 , 1997 ) and GA4H ( Yamaguchi et al., 1998 ), pea LE ( Lester et al., 1997 ; Martin et al., 1997 ), rice OsGA3ox1 and OsGA3ox2 ( Itoh et al., 2001 ), barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) Hv3ox1 and Hv3ox2 ( Spielmeyer et al., 2004

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Xiaohua Yang, Susan K. Brown, and Peter J. Davies

the sequential oxidation of GA 53 to GA 20 )] primarily functions in immature seeds ( Kusaba et al., 2001 ; Zhao et al., 2010 ), whereas MdGA3ox1 [GA-3oxidase (catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of bioactive GAs)] and MdGA2ox1 [GA-2oxidase

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Jennifer Han, Jan E. Murray, Qingyi Yu, Paul H. Moore, and Ray Ming

(GA20ox), GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox). Arabidopsis has almost twice the number of enzymes for each family compared with papaya. GA20ox and GA3ox are involved in forming bioactive GAs, whereas GA2ox functions to deactivate bioactive

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Suxiao Hao, Yanfen Lu, Jing Liu, Yufen Bu, Qi Chen, Nan Ma, Zhiqin Zhou, and Yuncong Yao

al., 2018 ). The GA 20-oxidases can regulate plant stature and disease development by affecting GA biosynthesis in rice ( Qin et al., 2013 ). Mutants defective in GA biosynthesis, such as GA1, GA 2 , and GA 3 , present relatively low internal

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Po-Hung Wu and Doris C.N. Chang

specific festivals. All plants bloomed after 14 weeks. The flower spike numbers of phalaenopsis Luchia Pink ‘244’ and doritaenopsis Taisuco Firebird ‘OX’ plants treated with BA increased from 1 to 1.2 flower spikes per plant and from 1.6 to 2 flower spikes

Open access

Irfan Ali Sabir, Xunju Liu, Songtao Jiu, Matthew Whiting, and Caixi Zhang

suppression however elevation of catabolism (feedforward regulation) results from improved expression of the GA catabolic genes GA2ox. Exogenous application of GAs boosts the upregulation of GA20ox genes and CPS, and supports downregulation of GA3ox genes

Open access

Taifeng Zhang, Jiajun Liu, Sikandar Amanullah, Zhuo Ding, Haonan Cui, Feishi Luan, and Peng Gao

a large plastic greenhouse. The GA 3 used for exogenous treatment was obtained from Solarbio Science and Technology (Beijing, China). The GA 3 powder was dissolved in a small quantity of ethanol and diluted in double-distilled water (ddH 2 O) to