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Laura L. Arriola, Mary K. Hausbeck, John Rogers, and Gene R. Safir

This paper is a portion of a thesis submitted by L.L. Arriola. We thank Wade Elmer of The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station for providing an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and for his technical advice. This

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Abu Shamim Mohammad Nahiyan and Yoh-ichi Matsubara

plants per plot with three replications were irrigated as regularly and grown in a greenhouse. Inoculation of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi . Two strains of Foa (MAFF305556 and N9-31) were grown on potato dextrose agar media. The conidia were

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Tomohiro Okada and Yoh-ichi Matsubara

. Inoculation of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi. Two isolates of Foa (MAFF305556 and SUF1226) were grown on potato–dextrose agar media. The conidia were harvested in potato sucrose liquid media and incubated at 25 °C in the dark for 7 d. The conidial

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Lincoln C. Peirce and Heather G. Miller

Several cinnamic acids have been identified as principal toxic components of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) root autotoxin and have been shown to synergize Fusarium infection of asparagus. The basis for this synergism was studied by exposing asparagus seeds and radicles from pregerminated seeds to ferulic (FA), caffeic (CA), or methylenedioxycinnamic (MDA) acids alone and in combinations of two or three of these acids. After treatment, seeds were placed in pots of peat-lite mix, and, depending on the experiment, all or half were inoculated with F. oxysporum (Schlecht) f. sp. asparagi (Cohen). Seedling emergence from each pot was used as a measure of toxicity. All cinnamic acids at 1% suppressed emergence compared with the control. Solutions combining FA and CA (0.5%/0.5%, v/v) were substantially more toxic than 1% solutions of either alone. Exposure of radicles (early postgermination) for 10 minutes to combined FA/CA before planting decreased emergence from pots, whereas emergence following a 10-minute exposure to 1% CA or FA alone did not differ from the controls. The 2-hour exposure to FA or to FA/CA and the 24-hour exposure to CA, FA, or FA/CA decreased emergence, with toxicity progressing as follows: CA < FA < FA/CA. Root tip squashes showed fewer mitotic figures in treated than in untreated radicles, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of the radicle epidermis revealed damage to the surface of epidermal cells and precocious root hair development, the extent of which paralleled treatment toxicity.