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scheme to reconstruct Fragaria × ananassa using native clones of F. virginiana and F. chiloensis . There are several advantages to using the reconstruction approach. The most obvious is that genetic diversity will be greatly expanded within

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male, female, or hermaphrodite and F. virginiana from North America that are both SD and remontant (RM) flowering and are also male, female, or hermaphrodite ( Table 1 ). Table 1. Name, PI number, taxon code, Fragaria accession number from the

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). Black bars denote progeny that were non-remontant, whereas white bars denote progeny that were remontant in 2008. Arrows show the values of the Fragaria virginiana (VIR) and F. chiloensis (CHI) parents. Fig. 2. Number of FVC11 genotypes

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Abbreviations: FC, Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duch. `BSP14'; FV, Fragaria virginiana (L.) Duch. `NCC85-13V'; RWC, relative water content; Ψ water potential; Ψ P , turgor potential; Ψ p osmotic potential; Ψπ 100 , osmotic potential at full turgor

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Abbreviations: FC, Fragaria chiloensis Duch. cv. `BSP14'; FV, Fragaria virginiana Duch. cv. `NCC85-13V'; RWC, relative water content; TSC, total soluble carbohydrates; ψ water potential; ψ π osmotic potential; ψ π 100 osmotic potential at full

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Thirty-three accessions of Fragaria virginiana collected from Mississippi in 1995 were evaluated for horticultural traits and leaf disease resistance at Reidsville, N.C., and strawberry anthracnose resistance (Colletotrichum acutatum and C. fragariae) at Poplarville, Miss., in 1997. The range of variability in berry shape, fruit flesh color, fruit skin toughness, and degree of sunkenness of seeds among accessions indicated probable introgression with F. xananassa in most all accessions. Seventeen of 29 accessions screened for resistance to C. acutatum were resistant, and an additional 10 were tolerant. Overall, these accessions appear to be good additional sources of resistance to this, the prevalent species of anthracnose in the southeastern United States. In addition, the majority of accessions appear to be tolerant-resistant to leaf scorch, leaf blight, and/or powdery mildew. Nine accessions were resistant to all three leaf diseases, and four were resistant to C. acutatum as well as the three foliar diseases. No accessions were resistant to C. fragariae and only five were tolerant. All five accessions tolerant to C. fragariae were also either resistant or tolerant to C. acutatum but the converse was not true.

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Variation in 14 horticultural traits of native octoploid Fragaria L. from North and South America was examined in a greenhouse. Significant levels of variation were found for all but a few of the traits at the species, subspecies, regional and genotypic level, with the highest amount of variation generally being partitioned among genotypes. Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Miller was superior to F. virginiana Miller for crown number, fruit weight, soluble solids and seed set, while Fragaria virginiana was superior for runner production, peduncle length, fruit number, fruit color and winter hardiness. Fragaria chiloensis ssp. pacifica Staudt had the highest soluble solids and among the earliest bloom dates, highest crown numbers and highest seed set. Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis f. chiloensis (L.) Duch. produced the largest fruit and among the earliest bloom dates and longest peduncles. Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis f. patagonica (L.) Duch. had among the highest crown numbers and the highest percentage seed set. Fragaria virginiana ssp. platypetala (Rydb.) Staudt produced the most crowns and its fruit ripened earliest. Fragaria virginiana ssp. glauca (Wats.) Staudt were the latest flowering, had the darkest fruit color and the most flowering cycles. Fragaria virginiana ssp. virginiana Duch. displayed the most winter dieback, the longest peduncles, and the highest flower and runner numbers. No significant differences were observed in any of the examined traits between F. chiloensis ssp. pacifica and F. chiloensis ssp. lucida, or F. virginiana ssp. grayana and F. virginiana ssp. virginiana. A number of individual genotypes were superior for more than one trait. CFRA 0024 possessed unusually high crown numbers, was extremely early blooming and displayed multiple fruiting cycles. CFRA 1121 had unusually long peduncles and much higher than average values for fruit weight, soluble solids, fruit color and seed set. CFRA 0094 was extremely early flowering and had much darker fruit color than most other F. chiloensis genotypes. CFRA 0368 flowered unusually early and had among the largest fruit. CFRA 0366 possessed unusually long peduncles and the largest fruit of any North American genotype. CFRA 0560 and CFRA 1369 had an unusual combination of multiple flowering cycles and high runner production. CFRA 1170 and 1171 were unusually late fruiting and had high numbers of large fruit on long peduncles. CFRA 1385 and JP 95-3-1 had extremely high flower numbers, long peduncles and large fruit.

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, Burlington, Wash., for Fragaria ×ananassa plants. Fragaria virginiana plants were supplied by Kim Hummer (FRA series) and Margaret Stahler (M.S. series). Thanks are due to Jeanette Bergen for technical assistance. The cost of publishing this paper was

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Authors: , , and

The genes that determine cyclic flowering in all commercially grown cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) were derived from a single source of F. virginiana ssp. glauca from the Wasatch Mountains in Utah. To broaden the germplasm base of cyclic flowering cultivars, we evaluated the reproductive characteristics of 5 to 10 colonies of F. virginiana ssp. glauca from each of 32 Rocky Mountain sites ranging in elevation from 700 to 2900 m. Populations at high and low elevations had high percentages of putative day neutrals with cyclic flowering (43% to 100%) and hermaphrodites (20% to 80%), although most hermaphrodites were only partially fertile. There was also little association between elevation and crown numbers or flower number per cycle, but the total number of flowers per plant was negatively correlated with elevation. Fruit size was not significantly correlated with fruit number. When the data were subjected to a principal component analysis, two distinct groups were identified: one from the Black Hills of South Dakota and the other from low-elevation sites in Idaho and northwestern Montana. These patterns mirrored previously described patterns based on leaf traits.

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