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al., 2003 ). For instance, some Festuca species are used worldwide as turfgrass {e.g., F. rubra (red fescue), F. ovina (sheep fescue), F. arundinacea [tall fescue (synonymous with Schedonorus arundinaceus )]}, for roadsides [e.g., F. ovina

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) Auquier] ‘Barcrown’ and ‘Louisa’, strong creeping red fescue ( Festuca rubra L. ssp. rubra Gaud.) ‘Leik’ and ‘Pernille’, hard fescue [ Festuca trachyphylla (Hackel) Krajina] ‘Pintor’ and ‘Ridu’, sheep fescue [ Festuca ovina L. ssp. hirtula (Hackel

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surface. Therefore, geophyte performance on a Minneapolis rooftop may increase if bulbs are planted deeper than the 5 cm we planted them; we would recommend 10 cm based on Nagase and Dunnett’s (2013) results. Among grasses, Festuca ovina VNS, Koelaria

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The objectives of this investigation were to determine the stomatal frequencies of 12 perennial cool-season turfgrasses, encompassing nine species, and their associated evapotranspiration (ET) rates under nonlimiting soil moisture and controlled environmental conditions. Significant differences in stomatal density were found among the 12 cool-season turfgrasses on both the abaxial (P > F = 0.0008) and adaxial (P > F = 0.0009) leaf surfaces. Significant differences (P > F = 0.0007) in ET rates also were found among the 12 cool-season turfgrasses. The Kentucky bluegrass (Pea pratensis L.) cultivars exhibited the highest ET rates, while the fine-leafed fescues (Festuca rubra and longifolia L.) exhibited the lowest rates, except for `Big Horn' sheep fescue (Festuca ovina L.), which exhibited an intermediate ET rate. No significant correlation was found between ET rate and either adaxial or abaxial stomatal density. It was concluded that, under nonlimiting soil moisture conditions, stomatal density was not reliably associated with ET rate.

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Abstract

Chlorsulfuron was applied to annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.), creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds ‘Penncross’), hard fescue (Festuca ovina var. duriuscula Koch ‘Scladis’), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb ‘Kentucky 31’), quackgrass (Agropyron repens L. Beauv), smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. ‘Crown’) at the rates of 0, 141, and 282 g a.i.·ha−1 in repeated greenhouse experiments. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass were very sensitive to the chlorsulfuron in both experiments. Creeping bentgrass, hard fescue, quackgrass, and smooth bromegrass were more tolerant of chlorsulfuron treatments than the sensitive species. Annual bluegrass was damaged by chlorsulfuron in the first experiment, but not in the 2nd. Chemical name used: 2-chloro-N-[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-l, 3, 5,-triazin-2-yl)amino]carbonyl]benzene sulfonamide (chlorsulfuron).

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including tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea ), creeping bentgrass, and perennial ryegrass ( Carrow and Duncan, 2003 ; Karcher et al., 2008 ; McCann and Huang, 2008 ; Wang and Bughrara, 2008 ). Given that drought and heat stress typically occur together

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As restrictions on water use, fertilization, and pesticide applications continue to increase, golf course superintendents will need to use grass species that require reduced inputs. The objective of this study was to evaluate alternative turfgrass species under low-input fairways conditions. In 2005, 17 species were established on native soil in St. Paul, MN. Each species was evaluated at three levels of traffic (zero, three, or six passes per week using a drum-type traffic simulator) and two mowing heights (1.90 and 2.54 cm). Data collected included turfgrass quality and percent living stand density. In 2006, velvet bentgrass (Agrostis canina L.), colonial bentgrass (Agrostis capillaris L.), and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) maintained acceptable quality in all treatment combinations. In 2007, Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra L. ssp. fallax) and sheep fescue (Festuca ovina L.) were the top-performing species regardless of treatment. Hard fescue (Festuca brevipila Tracey) performed poorly in Year 1 and well in Year 2. All other species did not perform at an acceptable level during the study. The results of this study indicate that sheep fescue, Chewings fescue, colonial bentgrass, and velvet bentgrass should be studied further for use on low-input golf course fairways in the northern United States.

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During the 2003 season, preemergence herbicide was applied to twelve container grown herbaceous perennials and woody plants and evaluated for weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. The herbicide and rates were: Flumioxazin (Broadstar) 113.5 g (label rate), 227 g and 454 g a.i./A. Herbicides were applied to Buxus microphylla `Winter Gem', Cytisus purgans `Spanish Gold', Festuca ovina glauca `Elijah Blue', Hakonechloa macra `Aureola', Lonicera tatarica `Arnold Red', Pachysandra terminalis `Green Sheen', Hydrangea arborescens `Annabelle', Mahonia aquifolium, Phalaris arundinacea `Picta', Carex buchananii, Cerastium tomentosum, and Achillea millefolium `Red Beauty'. Weed control was excellent at all rates and controlled at least 99% of all weeds. No phytotoxicity symptoms were apparent on Mahonia, Buxus, Cytisus, Festuca, Hakonechloa, Pachysandra or Phlaris. Phytotoxicity resulted on some of the other plants. Carex had smaller plants (dry weights) at all rates. Cerastium had severe phytotoxicty at the 227 g and 454 g rates and moderate stunting at the recommended label rate, 113.5 g. Hydrangea became chlorotic and stunted at the 113.5 g rate and some fatal toxicity ocurred at the 227 g and 454 g rates. Phytotoxicity resulted on Lonicera at all rates and ranged from mild chlorosis in leaf veins (113.5 g rate) to plant death (454 g rate). Achillea at the 113.5 g rate only resulted in stunted plant growth while the 227 g and 454 g rates resulted in severe phytotoxcity and plant death.

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Abstract

‘Baron’ Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), ‘Kentucky 31’ tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and ‘Reliant’ hard fescue (Festuca ovina var. duriuscula L. Koch.) were treated with N-[2,4-dimethyl-5-[[(trifluromethyl) sulfonyl] amino] phenyl] acetamide (Mefluidide) at 0.28 and 0.56 kg/ha, (2-chIoroethyI) phosphonic acid (ethephon) at 2.24, 4.48; and 6.72 kg/ha; and 5-(4-chIorophenyl)-3,4,5,9,10-pentaaza-tetracyclo [5,4,1,02’6, 08,11] dodeca-3,9-diene (BAS 106 00 W) at 1.68, 3.36, and 5.04 kg/ha. Similar responses to all rates of mefluidide and BAS 106 00 W, and to the 2.24 kg/ha rate of ethephon were observed for Kentucky bluegrass and hard fescue. Tall fescue shoot growth was reduced by mefluidide and the BAS 106 00 W, but to a lesser extent than the other 2 species, and was not affected by ethephon. Ethephon elongated internodes and shortened leaf blades of Kentucky bluegrass. Ethephon at 2.24 kg/ha reduced Kentucky bluegrass clipping weight and increased root organic matter production without reducing quality.

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conducted by Newell (1997) and Newell et al. (1999) found increased establishment in kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, red fescue ( Festuca rubra ), and two seed mixtures when fungicide-coated seed was used and compared with controls. Most recently

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