. Acorus gramineus ‘Minimus Aureus’, Andropogon ternarius ‘Black Mountain’, Calamagrostis ×acutiflora ‘Karl Foerster’, Carex morrowii ‘Ice Dance’, Festuca glauca ‘Elijah Blue’, and Sporobolus heterolepis are popular in landscapes in the United
Haifeng Xing, Julie Hershkowitz, Asmita Paudel, Youping Sun, Ji Jhong Chen, Xin Dai, and Matthew Chappell
James Klett*, Dave Staats, and Matt Rogoyski
During the 2003 season, preemergence herbicide was applied to twelve container grown herbaceous perennials and woody plants and evaluated for weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. The herbicide and rates were: Flumioxazin (Broadstar) 113.5 g (label rate), 227 g and 454 g a.i./A. Herbicides were applied to Buxus microphylla `Winter Gem', Cytisus purgans `Spanish Gold', Festuca ovina glauca `Elijah Blue', Hakonechloa macra `Aureola', Lonicera tatarica `Arnold Red', Pachysandra terminalis `Green Sheen', Hydrangea arborescens `Annabelle', Mahonia aquifolium, Phalaris arundinacea `Picta', Carex buchananii, Cerastium tomentosum, and Achillea millefolium `Red Beauty'. Weed control was excellent at all rates and controlled at least 99% of all weeds. No phytotoxicity symptoms were apparent on Mahonia, Buxus, Cytisus, Festuca, Hakonechloa, Pachysandra or Phlaris. Phytotoxicity resulted on some of the other plants. Carex had smaller plants (dry weights) at all rates. Cerastium had severe phytotoxicty at the 227 g and 454 g rates and moderate stunting at the recommended label rate, 113.5 g. Hydrangea became chlorotic and stunted at the 113.5 g rate and some fatal toxicity ocurred at the 227 g and 454 g rates. Phytotoxicity resulted on Lonicera at all rates and ranged from mild chlorosis in leaf veins (113.5 g rate) to plant death (454 g rate). Achillea at the 113.5 g rate only resulted in stunted plant growth while the 227 g and 454 g rates resulted in severe phytotoxcity and plant death.
Peter H. Dernoeden
Festuca species are being seeded into golf course roughs and natural or out-of-bound areas as alternative turfgrasses to replace perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the mid-Atlantic region. The tolerance of fine-leaf fescues to herbicides targeted for annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) control, such as ethofumesate and prodiamine, is unknown. The objectives of this field study, therefore, were to assess the tolerance of `Rebel II' tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and the fine-leaf fescue species `Reliant' hard fescue (Festuca longifolia Thuill.), `Jamestown II' Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata Gaud.), and `MX 86' blue sheep fescue (Festuca glauca L.) to various rates, combinations, and times of application of ethofumesate and prodiamine. `Rebel II' was most tolerant of ethofumesate; however, sequential rates ≥0.84 + 0.84 kg·ha-1 reduced quality for 1 or more weeks and 2.24 + 2.24 kg·ha-1 caused unacceptable injury. Single applications of ethofumesate at rates of 0.56, 0.84, and 1.12 kg·ha-1, and sequential treatments of 0.56 + 0.56 and 0.84 + 0.84 kg·ha-1 reduced `Reliant' quality temporarily. Sequential treatments of high rates (i.e., 1.12 + 1.12 and 2.24 + 2.24 kg·ha-1), however, significantly reduced `Reliant' cover. `Jamestown II' was very sensitive to ethofumesate, but recovered from single applications of 0.56, 0.84, and 1.12 kg·ha-1; sequential applications (≥0.84 + 0.84 kg·ha-1) caused unacceptable injury, and rates ≥1.12 + 1.12 kg·ha-1 caused significant loss of cover. The cultivar MX 86 tolerated single applications of 0.56 to 2.24 kg·ha-1 of ethofumesate, but sequential treatments generally reduced quality to unacceptable levels. In one study, `Jamestown II' and `MX 86' were more severely injured when ethofumesate (1.12 or 2.24 kg·ha-1) was applied in October rather than in November. The fescues generally best tolerated a single, November application of ethofumesate at ≤1.12 kg·ha-1. Prodiamine (0.73 kg·ha-1) caused only short-term reductions in quality of `Jamestown II', but was generally noninjurious to the other fescues. Ethofumesate tank-mixed with prodiamine (0.84 + 0.36 or 1.12 + 0.73 kg·ha-1) elicited some short-term reduction in quality, but the level of injury was generally acceptable and injured fescues had recovered by spring. Chemical names used: [±]2-ethoxy-2,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-benzofuranyl methanesulfonate (ethofumesate); N 3,N 3-di-n-propyl-2,4-dinitro-6-(trifluoromethyl)-m-phenylenediamine (prodiamine); S,S-dimethyl 2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)-3,5-pyridine-dicarbothioate (dithiopyr).
Bekele G. Abeyo, Robert C. Shearman, Roch E. Gaussoin, Leonard A. Wit, Desalegn D. Serba, and Ugur Bilgili
, 2003 ). Researchers in Nebraska and Utah reported improved spring and fall green color retention in buffalograss turfs overseeded with fine fescue ( Festuca species) on a long-term basis ( Johnson, 2003 ; Severmutlu et al., 2005 ). Blue fescues are
We investigated mixtures of buffalograss [Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. `Texoka' and `Cody'] and fine fescue species (Festuca rubra ssp. rubra L. `Vista', F. ovina var. glauca Lam. `Minotaur', F. rubra ssp. commutata Gaud. `Jamestown II') or stream-bank wheatgrass [Agropyron riparium Scribn. & Smith `Sodar'; syn. Elymus lanceolatus (Scribn. & Smith) Gould subsp. lanceolatus] as a low-maintenance turf with low irrigation requirements and season-long green color and growth. Buffalograss plots in Logan, Utah, were overseeded with fine fescue and streambank wheatgrass at two seeding rates. Plots of fine fescue, wheatgrass, or buffalograss alone were also established. At 50% evapotranspiration (ETo) replacement, fine fescues dominated the mixtures with no differences due to seeding rates. Wheatgrass mixture plots were unacceptable in quality. Buffalograss control plots and mixtures were similar for turfgrass quality in August, and fine fescue controls and mixtures were similar in spring and fall. The mixtures performed well in the low-maintenance turf situation, but dominance of fine fescue over the buffalograss limits the potential of these specific mixtures.
Joseph C. Neal and Andrew F. Senesac
Preemergent herbicide phytotoxicity was evaluated for six species of container-grown ornamental grasses: beach grass (Ammophila breviligulata Fern.), pampas grass [Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult. f.) Asch. & Graebn.], tufted hair grass [Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauvois.], blue fescue [Festuca ovina cv. glauca (Lam.) W.D.J. Koch], fountain grass [Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov.], and ribbon grass (Phalaris arundinacea cv. picta L.). Herbicides included isoxaben, metolachlor, MON 15151, napropamide, oryzalin, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, prodiamine, and trifluralin; the granular combination products of benefin plus trifluralin; and oxyfluorfen plus pendimethalin. Metolachlor, granular or spray, and oryzalin severely injured all species tested, except beachgrass, which was not injured by metolachlor granule. Napropamide injured pampas grass, fountain, grass, blue fescue, and tufted hair grass, but was safe on ribbon grass and beach grass. Pendimethalin, prodiamine, trifluralin; MON 15151, isoxaben, oxyfluorfen plus pendimethalin, and benefin plus trifluralin were safe on all six species. Chemical names used: N-butyl-N-ethyl-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine(benefin);N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)5-isoxazolyl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide(isoxaben);2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyll-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide (metolachlor); S,S-dimethyl 2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarbothioate(MON 15151);N,N-diethyl-2-(l-naphthalenyloxy)propanamide (napropamide); 4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitro-benzenesulfonamide (oryzalin); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); 2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene (oxyfluorfen); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin); N3,N3-di-n-propyl-2,4-dinitro-6-(trifluoromethyl)-m-phenylenediamine (prodiamine); 2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine (trifluralin).
Daniel R. Miller, Robert J. Mugaas, Mary H. Meyer, and Eric Watkins
. (2011) evaluated 12 grass species under mowed and unmowed conditions in eight U.S. states of the north-central region and found that hard fescue ( Festuca tracyphylla ), tall fescue, and sheep fescue ( Festuca ovina ) performed well at most locations
Jack E. Staub, Matthew D. Robbins, Yingmei Ma, and Paul G. Johnson
, 2011 ). To a lesser extent, fine-leaved fescue species are being considered for these low-input situations ( Ruemmele et al., 2003 ) and in more purely ornamental applications [e.g., blue fescue ( F. glauca ); Neal and Senesac, 1991 ]. The genus
Cécile Bertin, Andy F. Senesac, Frank S. Rossi, Antonio DiTommaso, and Leslie A. Weston
Hapludlafs, coarse loamy mixed mesic), with a pH of 5.9 and organic matter content of ≈3.2%. Fine-leaf fescue species evaluated included blue fescue ( Festuca glauca ), chewing's fescue, hard fescue, sheep fescue, strong creeping fescue, and slender creeping
Heidi A. Kratsch, James A. Schrader, Kenneth G. McCabe, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, David Grewell, and William R. Graves
84% (mean = 56%), and PAR at 1200 hr that averaged 483 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 . Species produced in the nursery trial were redosier dogwood ( Cornus sericea ), ‘Elijah Blue’ blue fescue ( Festuca glauca ), and white spruce ( Picea glauca ). Experimental