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The FFA, now known as the National FFA Organization, was founded in 1928 to promote and support agricultural education. It is one of the largest student-led organizations in the world whose mission is to “make a positive difference” in the lives of

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Master Gardeners (MGs) have proven to be effective judges for vocational horticulture student demonstrations of industry skills in 1996 Virginia and National FFA competitions. In a survey, the MG judges indicated a wide variety of backgrounds, with many being first-year MGs having no prior experience in judging or youth programs. Overall, they rated the student performance as better than expected and their own judging standard as neither lenient nor rigorous. Training is a critical part of their effectiveness as judges, and it was found that multiple formats are needed. Overall, most rated judging the FFA events as a very appropriate match to the MG educational goals, and there was a 100% affirmative response to the questions would they accept an invitation to judge again and would they encourage other MGs to volunteer as judges for FFA horticulture events.

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( Olias and García, 1997 ). These fruit may develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. The resultant oils tend to show hydrolytic and oxidative deterioration, evident by their high FFA and PV content ( García and Yousfi, 2006

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determined on the dried sample by nuclear magnetic resonance (Maran-S60; Oxford Instruments, Abingdon, UK) and referred on the basis of dry fruit weight. Olive oil physicochemical analyses (FFAs, peroxide value, ultraviolet absorption characteristics at 232

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Vernonia galamensis spp. galamensis is a short-season oilseed plant naturally producing an epoxy fatty acid, vernolic (cis-12, 13-epoxy-cis-9, 10-octadecenoic) acid. Trivernolin, a triglyceride with three vernolic acid moieties, is the highestquality oil produced by vernonia. Industrial interest in vernonia oil includes use for metal coating and as a non-volatile oil in paint. Seed lipase causes production of free fatty acids (FFA) from triglycerides (TG) in preand post-crushed seeds, thereby decreasing the quality of vernonia oil. Consequently, production of FFA can be used as a measure of lipase activity. Our research has developed a technique for detecting the production of FFA and the accompanying diand monoglycerides. We are able to quantify FFA in relation to total seed lipid. FFA were measured at time of crushing and at selected time intervals thereafter. This allowed us to assess FFA in intact seeds and in seeds that have been crushed with the lipase able to hydrolyze the TG. Significant differences were found between accessions for all times tested. This procedure was developed to enable us to screen plants in our breeding program for seed lipase activity. We are also screening our germplasm for triglyceride composition to select those plants producing the highest percentage of trivernolin. We will use this data to describe the genetics of both traits.

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Source, Santa Ynez, CA). Oil yields were calculated, assuming a specific density of 0.91 ( Vossen, 2005 ). Olive oil was shipped immediately in 2013 to the UCD Olive Center for chemical analysis of FFA, PV, ultraviolet absorption for conjugated double

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Abstract

Why aren't there more women horticulturists in the United States? The large number of European women in this field always astonishes Americans traveling abroad. In certain Asian countries, e.g. Taiwan and Thailand, women are represented in horticulture classes in much larger numbers. (This may partly account for the extraordinarily high proportion of Oriental women graduate students in the U.S.) Recently, in our country there has been a noticeable increase in high school girls enrolled in agriculture and participating in FFA. There is also a substantial increase in number of college women majoring in horticulture. A poll of 43 Land Grant Institutions showed that women constitute 22% of undergraduate majors and 14% of our graduate students. A comparison of the present meager representation of women in academic positions (2%), employed by USDA (1.5%), and members of ASHS (1.7%) with the proportion of young women training for careers in horticulture demands a reevaluation of long-held assumptions that horticulture is a masculine occupation. Why such a high rate of attrition between undergraduate training and professional employment?

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Association and was named an honorary Utah Certified Nurseryman by the Utah Nursery and Landscape Association, and an honorary State Farmer by the Idaho FFA. His academic appointment did not include research, but he involved many of his students in carrying

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programs to target non-participants and incorporate social norms strategies. Ffa Career Development Events and Future University Enrollment Williams et al. (p. 862) evaluated whether over 1400 former participants (1999-2012) in state-level FFA Floriculture

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youth participation in NJHA, JMG℠, 4-H, and FFA Increase number of high school students in horticulture and plant sciences programs Increase number of horticulture students in 2-year and 4-year college and university programs Increase number of well

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