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  • Eugenia uniflora x
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Abstract

Fruits of 4 species and cultivars of guava (Psidium guaiava L. cv. Beaumont, P. cattleianum Sabine, P. cattleianum f. lucidum Degener, and P. guajava L. cv. Allahabed Safeda) were found to be climacteric in their respiratory behavior with C2H4 triggering the respiratory rise. Fruits of 4 species of Eugenia (Eugenia malaccensis L., E. cumini (L.) Druce, E. uniflora L., and E. jambos L.) exhibited typical respiratory behavior of nonclimacteric fruits including the response to exogenous C2H4 treatments. The possibility of using respiratory data as a physiological tool for taxonomic differentiation of plants is discussed.

Open Access

Abstract

Several field-established broadleaved and coniferous evergreen shrubs and 2 ground covers, Carpobrotus sp. and Hedera helix L., survived, and maintained adequate appearance with greatly restricted growth, without supplemental irrigation from May through September on deep soils at San Jose and Santa Ana, CA. Eugenia uniflora L. at Santa Ana required 1 irrigation (9.4 cm) in July to insure survival and both Coprosma baueri Endl. and Cotoneaster pannosa Franch. required 1 or 2 irrigations to insure adequate foliar density. At San Jose only Nerium oleander L. lost leaves or lost leaf color and turgidity in the non-irrigated plot. The plantings at both locations had viable roots down to 1 m and probably deeper. Non-irrigated and bimonthly irrigated soils were at or below the permanent wilting percentage down to 1 m. Leaf temp in the non-irrigated Xylosma congestum (Lour.) Merr. and Carpobrotus plots were 6 and 15° C, respectively, above ambient and yet no permanent foliar injury was observed. We suggest that leaf temp may be used to measure critical water stress in landscape plants. Our findings indicate that substantial savings in water costs and in controlling vegetative overgrowth can be realized by reducing irrigation frequency in established landscape plantings.

Open Access

Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) has value as a minor tropical fruit crop and as an ornamental plant in tropical and subtropical regions. In the United States, Surinam cherry is propagated by seed, as stem cuttings do not root. Elite selections are propagated by grafting, but grafts have not had high rates of success. Micropropagation of Surinam cherry has also been mostly unsuccessful. In this trial, 100 seeds from a self-cross of the cultivar Zill Dark were surface-disinfested and placed in vitro in 150 × 25-mm tubes on a medium of deionized water solidified with 8 g/L of agar. Seed cultures were placed on unlighted shelves. After 3 weeks without lights, seed cultures were transferred to lighted shelves where they readily germinated (100%) over the next 7 to 14 days. Seedlings were strongly tap-rooted and the roots quickly reached the bottoms of the tubes. After the 2 weeks under lights, 2 mL of autoclaved, half-strength liquid McCown's Woody Plant Medium (WPM) were added to each tube, creating a two-phase culture environment. Every 4 weeks, another 2 mL of half-strength WPM liquid medium were added to the cultures. Most seedlings elongated and produced three or more stems nodes with leaves after 10 weeks under lights. After this 10-week growth period, several of the seedlings had also produced adventitious roots at the first, second, and third stem nodes. After an additional 4 weeks in culture, 50% of the seedlings (50) had produced adventitious roots at one or more nodes. Additionally, tip cuttings taken from some of the seedlings that did not initially produce adventitious roots, produced roots at nodes when the stems were inserted directly in WPM medium supplemented with 20 g/L sucrose and various auxins.

Free access

Three species of tropical shrubs, bush allamanda (Allamanda schottii), ixora (Ixora ‘Nora Grant’), and surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora), were planted into a native sand soil and a calcareous fill soil in south Florida and were fertilized with a 24N–0P–9.2K (24–0–11) turf fertilizer or an 8N–0P–10K–6Mg plus micronutrients (8–0–12) palm fertilizer at rates of 10 or 20 g of nitrogen (N) per shrub four times per year. Two additional treatments using a 0–0–13.3K–6Mg plus micronutrients (0–0–16) palm fertilizer were applied at equivalent rates of potassium (K) (12.5 or 25 g/shrub of K) to that applied in the two 8–0–12 palm fertilizer treatments. Shrub size measurements, nutrient deficiency severity ratings, number of flowers, and shrub density ratings were determined at 6 months after planting (establishment period) and at 3 years after planting (maintenance phase). Data from these measured variables were subjected to principal component analysis to obtain a single measure of overall quality, namely, the scores for each plant on the first principal component. During the establishment period, ixora fertilized with the high rate of 8–0–12 had the highest quality on the sand soil, but there were no differences among treatments on the fill soil for this species or on either soil type for allamanda and surinam cherry. After 3 years of growth, ixora showed no differences in quality on either soil in response to the fertilizer treatments. On the sand soil, allamanda receiving the high rate of 24–0–11 or the low rate of 8–0–12 had significantly higher quality than unfertilized control plants, and the low rate of 8–0–12 produced the highest quality plants on the fill soil. Surinam cherry grown on sand soil had the highest qualities when fertilized with the high rates of either 24–0–11 or 8–0–12. In general, leaf nutrient concentrations were inversely correlated with overall shrub quality, with largest, highest quality plants having the lowest nutrient concentrations because of dilution effects. However, leaf manganese (Mn) concentrations were consistently within deficiency ranges for all species under most treatments, suggesting that Mn deficiency was stunting shrub growth on both soil types.

Full access

Oliveira AL. 2011 Supercritical fluid extracts from the Brazilian cherry ( Eugenia uniflora L): Relationship between the extracted compounds and the characteristic flavour intensity of the fruit Food Chem. 124 1 85 92 Maria D Jurado-Campos N

Open Access