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Timothy G. Porch, Matthew W. Blair, Patricia Lariguet, Carlos Galeano, Clive E. Pankhurst, and William J. Broughton

chemical mutagens have also been used, including azide ( Cary, 1982 ), N -ethylnitrosourea ( Svetleva, 2004 ), and ethyl methane sulfonate ( Motto et al., 1975 ). Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) has been used to generate mutations in seedcoat color ( Moh

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Yingmei Gao, Jingkang Hu, Tingting Zhao, Xiangyang Xu, Jingbin Jiang, and Jingfu Li

plants suffering from biotic and abiotic stresses ( Century et al., 2008 ). BRI1-EMS-suppressor 1 is a new class of TFs that bind to and activate the promoters of BR genes ( Yin et al., 2005 ). BRs regulate many plant growth and developmental processes

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Rui Li, Lu Fan, Jingdong Lin, Mingyang Li, Daofeng Liu, and Shunzhao Sui

) and disease resistance ( Ge et al., 2015 ) with high feasibility and high availability. EMS is a conventional chemical mutagen that can produce many gene mutations (point mutations) with few chromosomal disruptions ( Perera et al., 2015 ). EMS can be

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Ryan N. Contreras and Mara W. Friddle

semidwarf as well as its unique leaf shape. Origin ‘Oregon Snowflake’ was derived from wild-collected seeds purchased from Seven Oaks Native Nursery (Albany, OR) that were treated with ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) to induce mutations that would result in

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Nuananong Purente, Bin Chen, Xiaowei Liu, Yunwei Zhou, and Miao He

). Improvements in mutant varieties of different crop species have been used widely in cultivation ( Kharkwal and Shu, 2009 ; Mohan Jian and Suprasanna, 2011 ). EMS is a commonly used chemical mutagen in plants and has become a primary resource for development of

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Ryan N. Contreras and Kim Shearer

breeders to induce genetic variation in plants and can be particularly useful for naturally self-pollinating plants ( Waugh et al., 2006 ). EMS is a preferred method due to ease of access, its chemical mode of action, and cost compared with methods such as

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Stephen Patrick Greer and Timothy A. Rinehart

Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) is a mutagen that chemically alters DNA through random reaction and modification of oxygen present in nucleotide bases (such as the O6 of guanine and O4 of thymine) as well as in DNA phosphate groups ( Sega, 1984

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Tyler Hoskins and Ryan N. Contreras

facultative apomict, it is inefficient and cumbersome to identify and separate sexually derived seedlings from nucellar embryos. As such, the objectives of our study were 1) to expose seeds of S. confusa to EMS at varying concentrations and exposure

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Jong-Yi Fang and Siguina Traore

; Rego and Faria, 2001 ). Among the chemical mutagens, EMS is considered very effective and its effectiveness has largely been demonstrated in cereal crops such as rice ( Bhan and Kaul, 2003 ), wheat ( Bozzini and Mugnozza, 2003 ), and barley ( Nicoloff

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Leslie Heffron, Alan Blowers, and Schuyler Korban

Seeds of Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon), proprietary line OAK564, were treated with 0%, 0.10%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1.0% ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) for 8, 10, and 12 h at room temperature. The experiment was replicated three times over time. Data were collected on percent seed germination, seedling survivability, and pollen viability to determine optimal conditions for induced mutagenesis in OAK564 seeds. In the pilot experiment, M1 seeds treated with 1.0% EMS for 12 h had the lowest seed germination rate among all 18 treatments. Based on this pilot experiment, a large-scale mutagenesis experiment was performed using three levels of EMS (0.5%, 0.75%, and 1.0%) for 10-h exposure period. Mutants were induced on all these treatments, and morphological changes in the M1 population were detected. These included dwarfism, chlorophyll deficiency, and leaf morphology abnormality. This indicated that the EMS treatments were successful in inducing mutations, and mutants were further characterized for morphological traits.