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Timothy G. Porch, Matthew W. Blair, Patricia Lariguet, Carlos Galeano, Clive E. Pankhurst and William J. Broughton

chemical mutagens have also been used, including azide ( Cary, 1982 ), N -ethylnitrosourea ( Svetleva, 2004 ), and ethyl methane sulfonate ( Motto et al., 1975 ). Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) has been used to generate mutations in seedcoat color ( Moh

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Yingmei Gao, Jingkang Hu, Tingting Zhao, Xiangyang Xu, Jingbin Jiang and Jingfu Li

plants suffering from biotic and abiotic stresses ( Century et al., 2008 ). BRI1-EMS-suppressor 1 is a new class of TFs that bind to and activate the promoters of BR genes ( Yin et al., 2005 ). BRs regulate many plant growth and developmental processes

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Rui Li, Lu Fan, Jingdong Lin, Mingyang Li, Daofeng Liu and Shunzhao Sui

) and disease resistance ( Ge et al., 2015 ) with high feasibility and high availability. EMS is a conventional chemical mutagen that can produce many gene mutations (point mutations) with few chromosomal disruptions ( Perera et al., 2015 ). EMS can be

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Ryan N. Contreras and Mara W. Friddle

semidwarf as well as its unique leaf shape. Origin ‘Oregon Snowflake’ was derived from wild-collected seeds purchased from Seven Oaks Native Nursery (Albany, OR) that were treated with ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) to induce mutations that would result in

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Stephen Patrick Greer and Timothy A. Rinehart

Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) is a mutagen that chemically alters DNA through random reaction and modification of oxygen present in nucleotide bases (such as the O6 of guanine and O4 of thymine) as well as in DNA phosphate groups ( Sega, 1984

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Tyler Hoskins and Ryan N. Contreras

facultative apomict, it is inefficient and cumbersome to identify and separate sexually derived seedlings from nucellar embryos. As such, the objectives of our study were 1) to expose seeds of S. confusa to EMS at varying concentrations and exposure

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Jong-Yi Fang and Siguina Traore

; Rego and Faria, 2001 ). Among the chemical mutagens, EMS is considered very effective and its effectiveness has largely been demonstrated in cereal crops such as rice ( Bhan and Kaul, 2003 ), wheat ( Bozzini and Mugnozza, 2003 ), and barley ( Nicoloff

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Leslie Heffron, Alan Blowers and Schuyler Korban

Seeds of Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon), proprietary line OAK564, were treated with 0%, 0.10%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1.0% ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) for 8, 10, and 12 h at room temperature. The experiment was replicated three times over time. Data were collected on percent seed germination, seedling survivability, and pollen viability to determine optimal conditions for induced mutagenesis in OAK564 seeds. In the pilot experiment, M1 seeds treated with 1.0% EMS for 12 h had the lowest seed germination rate among all 18 treatments. Based on this pilot experiment, a large-scale mutagenesis experiment was performed using three levels of EMS (0.5%, 0.75%, and 1.0%) for 10-h exposure period. Mutants were induced on all these treatments, and morphological changes in the M1 population were detected. These included dwarfism, chlorophyll deficiency, and leaf morphology abnormality. This indicated that the EMS treatments were successful in inducing mutations, and mutants were further characterized for morphological traits.

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John D. Lea-Cox*

Environmental and human safety regulations are now an inevitable part of horticultural crop production. For most businesses, worker training and the subsequent collection and administration of data required for reporting purposes is often regarded as an economic burden. There are few systematic models that firstly provide an ecompassing approach to this business requirement, but more importantly which provide resources that simplify and perhaps automate the reporting of data to any significant degree. A good environmental management system (EMS) should provide a framework to systematically plan, control, measure and improve an organization's environmental performance and assessment. Significant environmental improvements (and cost savings) can be achieved by assessing and improving management and production processes, but only if the data are collected and analyzed quickly and easily. Many times, growers do not realize the relationship between their improved environmental performance and other key EMS benefits, such as reduced liability, better credit ratings, enhanced employee performance, improved customer relations, marketing advantages together with improved regulatory compliance. The International organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 series is the most widely accepted international standard for EMS. Growers in most states in the US are required to document their use of pesticides and other agrochemicals that can impact human health, and in some states are also required to to document and monitor their applications of water and nutrients, in an effort to environmental pollution. This paper will illustrate the key elements of environmental management systems and how this can be integrated into production management using process management software.

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Leslie Heffron, Alan Blowers, Michael Uchneat and Schuyler Korban

A tissue culture screen for ethylene tolerance using 1-aminocyclo-propane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) was optimized for a snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) inbred line, OAK564. Two experiments were conducted using various concentrations of ACC (ranging from 0 to 100 μM). Presence of 5 μM ACC in the tissue culture medium elucidated biological activity in snapdragon seeds. This screen was used to determine relative sensitivity to ethylene in 48 hybrid lines. Different levels of sensitivity to ethylene were observed among the various hybrid lines. Moreover, 40,000 mutagenized seeds from three M2 populations, derived from different levels of EMS (0.5%, 0.75%, and 1.0%) treatments, were screened for ethylene sensitivity. A total of 231 putative mutants were recovered spanning eight distinct phenotypes based on the `triple response' assay. Of these putative mutants, 16 mutants were selected for further analysis, including at least one and up to three lines from each of the eight phenotypic classes. Plants were established in the greenhouse, and allowed to grow to maturity to collect selfed seeds. These seeds were once again screened with 5 μM ACC to determine the level of ethylene sensitivity present within each of the eight phenotypic classes. Responses in the M3 populations varied from complete ethylene tolerance to ethylene sensitivity. Implications of these results on the recovery of ethylene tolerant mutants will be discussed.