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Claudia Elkins and Marc W. van Iersel

and van Iersel, 2017 ), but not for growth responses. Our objective was to evaluate 18 intensities of supplemental far-red light, ranging from 4.0 to 68.8 µmol·m −2 ·s −1 , on the growth and morphology of ‘Dalmatian Peach’ foxglove ( Digitalis purpurea

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Paul B. Hedman, John M. Dole, Niels O. Maness, and Jeffrey A. Anderson

The postharvest biosynthesis of ethylene and CO2 was measured at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h after harvest and the effects of exogenous applications of 0.0, 0.2, or 1.0 μl·liter–1 ethylene for 20 h was observed on eight speciality cut flower species. Helianthus maximilliani (Maximillian's sunflower), Penstemon digitalis (penstemon), Achillea fillipendulina [`Coronation Gold' (yarrow)], Celosia plumosa [`Forest Fire' (celosia)], Cosmos bipinnatus [`Sensation' (cosmos)], Buddleia davidii (butterfly bush), and Weigela sp. (weigela) exhibited a climacteric-like pattern of ethylene production followed by a steady rise in CO2 production. Echinacea purpurea (coneflower) ethylene biosynthesis was not significant during the 48-h period after harvest. Vase life of coneflower, yarrow, celosia, cosmos, and butterfly bush was not affected by exogenous ethylene. Exogenous ethylene applications to Maximillian's sunflower, penstemon, and weigela resulted in flower abscission and decreased vase life, indicating that they are probably ethylene-sensitive cut flower species.

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James E. Klett and David Hillock

Herbicides were applied to container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated on the basis of weed control and phytotoxicity. During the 1994 season, seven preemergent herbicides, napropamide (Devrinol) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg·ha–1, metolachlor (Pennant) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg·ha–1, isoxaben (Gallery) at 1.1 and 2.3 kg·ha–1, oxadiazon (Ronstar) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg·ha–1, oxyfluorfen + oryzalin (Rout) at 3.4 and 13.6 kg·ha–1, oryzalin (Surflan) at 2.8 and 4.5 kg·ha–1, and trifluralin (Treflan) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg·ha–1, were tested on Aquilegia caerulea `McKana's Giant', Digitalis purpurea, Gaillardia aristata, Limonium latifolium, and Veronica spicata. Isoxaben (both rates) resulted in visual phytotoxicity symptoms and death to Digitalis. Metolachlor (both rates) resulted in plant death to Veronica. Pennant (both rates), when applied to Limonium, resulted in stunted growth. Aquilegia and Gaillardia were not adversely affected. Most herbicides controlled both dicot and monocot weeds effectively.

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James E. Klett, David Staats, and David Hillock

During the 1992 season six preemergent herbicides (Devrinol) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg/ha, Metolachlor (Pennant) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg/ha, Isoxaben (Gallery) at 1.1 and 2.3 kg/ha, Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout) at 3.4 and 13.6 kg/ha, Oryzalin (Surflan) at 2.8 and 4.5 kg/ha and Trifluralin (Treflan) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg/ha, were tested on Rudbeckia fulgida “Goldstrum”, Digitalis purpurea “Excelsior”, Chrysanthemum maximum “Alaska”, Stokesia laevis “Blue Danube”, and Geum hybrids “Mrs. Bradshaw”. Gallery at both rates resulted in visual phytotoxicity on Chrysanthemum, Digitalis and stunting in Rudbeckia at the 2.3 kg/ha rate. During the 1993 season the same herbicides plus Oxadiazon (Ronstar) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg/ha, were tested on Achillea tomentosa, and Thymus pseudolanuginosus. Gallery and Pennent at both rates resulted in visual phytotoxicity and stunted growth on Thymus pseudolanuginosus. Rout at the 13.6 kg/ha rate resulted in visual phytotoxicity on Achilles tomentosa.

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Ben A. Bergmann, John M. Dole, and Ingram McCall

Increasing cut stem length and reducing crop production time are producers’ goals for numerous cut flower species. One or both of these aims was met in several field-grown cultivars through foliar application of gibberellic acid (GA3), but effectiveness varied by cultivar, application rate, and timing. Of the 13 cultivars tested, stem length was increased in nine cultivars [Toreador Red celosia (Celosia argentea), Camelot White foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), Imperial Giants Pink Perfection larkspur (Larkspur hybrids), Compliment mix lobelia (Lobelia hybrids), Nippon Taka ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum), Amazon Neon Duo and Bouquet Purple sweet william (Dianthus hybrids), Summer Pastels yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and Benary’s Giant Scarlet zinnia (Zinnia elegans)], and time to harvest was decreased in four cultivars [High Tide White ageratum (Ageratum houstonianum), lobelia, ornamental pepper, and zinnia], when GA3 was applied as a foliar spray. Concentrations of 400, 800, and 1600 mg·L−1 GA3 were most effective. Application of GA3 resulted in malformed or smaller flowers or lighter green foliage in foxglove, lobelia, sweet william, and zinnia. In most cases, only one application was tested, and greatest response to GA3 was observed during 3–6 weeks post application. Gibberellic acid did not influence stem length in three cultivars [High Tide White ageratum, Aurora Deep Purple delphinium (Delphinium hybrids), and Column Lilac Lavender stock (Matthiola incana)], and decreased flower stem length in one cultivar (High Tide Blue ageratum). Four cultivars were identified as good candidates for further research given their promising responses to GA3 treatments.

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Erin M.R. Clark, John M. Dole, Alicain S. Carlson, Erin P. Moody, Ingram F. McCall, Frankie L. Fanelli, and William C. Fonteno

Each year a wide variety of new cultivars and species are evaluated in the National Cut Flower Trial Programs administered by North Carolina State University and the Association of Specialty Cut Flower Growers. Stems of promising and productive cultivars from the National Trial Program were pretreated with either a commercial hydrating solution or deionized (DI) water and placed in either a commercial holding solution or DI water. Over 8 years, the vase life of 121 cultivars representing 47 cut flower genera was determined. Although there was cultivar variation within each genus, patterns of postharvest responses have emerged. The largest category, with 53 cultivars, was one in which a holding preservative increased vase life of the following genera and species: acidanthera (Gladiolus murielae), basil (Ocimum basilicum), bee balm (Monarda hybrid), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hybrids), campanula (Campanula species), celosia (Celosia argentea), common ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), coneflower (Echinacea purpurea), coral bells (Heuchera hybrids), feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), ladybells (Adenophora hybrid), lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum), lobelia (Lobelia hybrids), obedient plant (Physostegia virginiana), ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum), pincushion flower (Scabiosa atropurpurea), pinkflower (Indigofera amblyantha), seven-sons flower (Heptacodium miconioides), shasta daisy (Leucanthemum superbum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), sweet william (Dianthus hybrids), trachelium (Trachelium caeruleum), and zinnia (Zinnia elegans). Hydrating preservatives increased the vase life of four basils, coral bells, and sunflower cultivars. The combined use of hydrator and holding preservatives increased the vase life of three black-eyed susan, seven-sons flower, and sunflower cultivars. Holding preservatives reduced the vase life of 14 cultivars of the following genera and species: ageratum (Ageratum houstonianum), false queen anne's lace (Ammi species), knotweed (Persicaria hybrid), lisianthus, pineapple lily (Eucomis comosa), sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale), yarrow (Achillea millifolium), and zinnia. Hydrating preservatives reduced the vase life of 18 cultivars of the following genera and species: feverfew, lisianthus, ornamental pepper, pineapple lily, seven-sons flower, shasta daisy, sneezeweed, sweet william, sunflower, trachelium, yarrow, and zinnia. The combined use of hydrating and holding preservatives reduced the vase life of 12 cultivars in the following genera and species: false queen anne's lace, feverfew, pincushion flower, sneezeweed, sunflower, trachelium, yarrow, and zinnia. Data for the remaining 50 cultivars were not significant among the treatments; these genera and species included beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), black-eyed susan, blue mist (Caryopteris clandonensis), calendula (Calendula officinalis), campanula, cleome (Cleome hasserliana), common ninebark, dahlia (Dahlia hybrids), delphinium (Delphinium hybrids), flowering peach (Prunus persica forma versicolor), heliopsis (Heliopsis helianthoides), hemp agrimony (Eupatorium cannabinum), himalayan honeysuckle (Leycesteria formosa), hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata), larkspur (Consolida hybrids), lily of the nile (Agapanthus hybrid), lisianthus, lobelia, ornamental pepper, pineapple lily, scented geranium (Pelargonium hybrid), sunflower, sweet william, and zinnia.

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David Staats, David Hillock, and James E. Klett

Five preemergence herbicides were applied to seven herbaceous perennials to evaluate weed control efficacy and phytotoxicity. Different species were used each year. The species used during 1992 were coneflower (Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. `Goldstrum'), common foxglove (Digitalis purpurea L. `Excelsior'), Shasta daisy (Leucanthemum ×superbum Bergmans `Alaska'), Stokes's aster (Stokesia laevis Greene `Blue Danube'), and avens (Geum Quellyon Sweet `Mrs. Bradshaw'). The species used in 1993 were woolly yarrow (Achillea tomentosa L.) and woolly thyme (Thymus pseudolanuginosus Ronn.). The herbicides and rates were napropamide (Devrinol 10G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre; metolachlor (Pennant 5G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre; oxyfluorfen+oryzalin (Rout 3G) at 3 and 12 lb a.i./acre; trifluralin (Treflan 5G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre; and oxadiazon (Ronstar 2G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre. Plants were grown in no. 1 containers and weed seeds were sown onto the substrate surface. Two control treatments, no herbicides but with weeds (weedy control), and no weeds or herbicides (weed-free control) also were evaluated. Weed control was effective and similar for all herbicides tested. Napropamide at 8 lb a.i./acre caused stunting in foxglove (20% to 45% less growth compared to weed-free control). Oxyfluorfen + oryzlain at 12 lb a.i./acre caused severe phytotoxicity (≈80% to 95% of plant injured) and stunted the growth (70% to 80% less growth, sometimes plant death) of woolly yarrow. Woolly thyme was stunted by all herbicides when applied at the recommended rates (42% to 97% less growth compared to control) except for oxadiazon and oxyfluorfen + oryzlain. Woolly thyme appeared to be more susceptible to phytotoxicity due to its less-vigorous growth habit and shallow, adventitious roots that were in contact with the herbicide.

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Ibrahim Demir, B. Begüm Kenanoglu, Kazim Mavi, Tuba Celikkol, Fiona Hay, and Zeliha Sariyildiz

seed storage data and the longevity of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds J. Expt. Bot. 54 993 1011 Hay, F.R. Probert, R.J. Smith, R.D. 1997 The effect of maturity on the moisture relations of seed longevity in foxglove ( Digitalis purpurea L.) Seed Sci. Res

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Zhenhua Li, Yiling Liu, and RenXiang Liu

Hay, F.R. Probert, R.J. Smith, R.D. 1997 The effect of maturity on the moisture relations of seed longevity in foxglove ( Digitalis purpurea L.) Seed Sci. Res. 7 341 349 Hoffmaster, A.F. Xu, L. Fujimura, K. McDonald, M.B. Bennett, M.A. Evans, A

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Kimberly A. Moore, Amy L. Shober, Gitta S. Hasing, Christine L. Wiese, Geoffrey C. Denny, and Gary W. Knox

, foxglove ( Digitalis purpurea ), and kale ( Brassica oleracea ) were affected by fertilizer rate ( Table 2 ). Higher quality ratings were assigned to snapdragon receiving 7 lb/1000 ft 2 per year N compared with plants receiving 3 or 5 lb/1000 ft 2 N per