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Barbara S. Gilmore, Nahla V. Bassil, Danny L. Barney, Brian J. Knaus, and Kim E. Hummer

species of little economic importance (reviewed in Zalapa et al., 2012 ). For example, DNA sequencing using next-generation sequencing technology (Ilumina platform ® ; Ilumina, San Diego, CA) allowed development of polymorphic SSR markers for alaska

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Kang Hee Cho, Seo Jun Park, Su Jin Kim, Se Hee Kim, Han Chan Lee, Mi Young Kim, and Jae An Chun

protection of plant cultivars and for practical breeding purposes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA markers have become useful in identifying cultivars, analyzing provenance studies, evaluating genetic diversity, and identifying the locations of

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Amnon Levi and Claude E. Thomas

triploid seeds ( Shimotsuma and Matsumoto, 1957 ). Still, DNA markers can be useful in quality assurance tests to confirm sufficient production of triploid seeds in isolation plots. DNA markers have been used in genetic studies and in breeding programs of

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Xiaobo Zhang, Derong Su, Luyi Ma, and Yan Zhao

amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker analysis ( Williams et al., 1990 ), based on a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with arbitrary primers, is not influenced by the environment and is used effectively for analyzing genetic diversity in various grasses

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Xiao-min Liu, Xin-zhi Zhang, Yi-min Shi, and Dong-qin Tang

resources ( Franco et al., 2001 ; Zhang and Dai, 2010 ). The methods for analysis of genetic diversity in plants were well developed in the last decades, commonly based on the morphological characteristics, seed proteins, isozymes, and DNA markers ( Gepts

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Beibei Li, Jianfu Jiang, Xiucai Fan, Ying Zhang, Haisheng Sun, Guohai Zhang, and Chonghuai Liu

instead switched to modern cultivars or recently bred cultivars. Therefore, many germplasm resources that were not preserved were lost permanently. DNA molecular marker technique showing polymorphism at the DNA level is a powerful tool for the

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Dario J. Chavez, Thomas G. Beckman, and José X. Chaparro

.1 m m EDTA) and 50 µL of DNA grade water. DNA concentration was quantified in a spectrophotometer (UV10; Thermo Fisher Scientific). DNA concentration for all the samples was standardized to 20 ng·µL −1 . Genomic regions SSR markers. A total of 41 SSR

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Vidyasagar R. Sathuvalli, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher, and David C. Smith

resistance alleles would greatly facilitate the development of new cultivars. Random amplified polymorphic DNA and SSR markers linked to EFB resistance have been identified for three sources: ‘Gasaway’, ‘Ratoli’ from Spain, and OSU 759.010 from the Republic

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Vidyasagar R. Sathuvalli, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher, and David C. Smith

chain reaction (PCR) are one of the least expensive types of DNA markers and are suitable to the high sample throughput required for routine use in applied breeding programs ( Welsh and McClelland, 1990 ; Williams et al., 1990 ). RAPD markers are

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Antar Nasr El-Banna, Mohammed Elsayed El-Mahrouk, Mohammed Eraky El-Denary, Yaser Hassan Dewir, and Yougasphree Naidoo

, without epistatic and pleotropic effects and are interpretable as genes and loci. Molecular markers, which detect variation at the DNA level overcome most of the limitations of morphological and biochemical markers. As demonstrated by their use in various