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species of little economic importance (reviewed in Zalapa et al., 2012 ). For example, DNA sequencing using next-generation sequencing technology (Ilumina platform ® ; Ilumina, San Diego, CA) allowed development of polymorphic SSR markers for alaska

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protection of plant cultivars and for practical breeding purposes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA markers have become useful in identifying cultivars, analyzing provenance studies, evaluating genetic diversity, and identifying the locations of

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triploid seeds ( Shimotsuma and Matsumoto, 1957 ). Still, DNA markers can be useful in quality assurance tests to confirm sufficient production of triploid seeds in isolation plots. DNA markers have been used in genetic studies and in breeding programs of

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amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker analysis ( Williams et al., 1990 ), based on a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with arbitrary primers, is not influenced by the environment and is used effectively for analyzing genetic diversity in various grasses

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resources ( Franco et al., 2001 ; Zhang and Dai, 2010 ). The methods for analysis of genetic diversity in plants were well developed in the last decades, commonly based on the morphological characteristics, seed proteins, isozymes, and DNA markers ( Gepts

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instead switched to modern cultivars or recently bred cultivars. Therefore, many germplasm resources that were not preserved were lost permanently. DNA molecular marker technique showing polymorphism at the DNA level is a powerful tool for the

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resistance alleles would greatly facilitate the development of new cultivars. Random amplified polymorphic DNA and SSR markers linked to EFB resistance have been identified for three sources: ‘Gasaway’, ‘Ratoli’ from Spain, and OSU 759.010 from the Republic

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chain reaction (PCR) are one of the least expensive types of DNA markers and are suitable to the high sample throughput required for routine use in applied breeding programs ( Welsh and McClelland, 1990 ; Williams et al., 1990 ). RAPD markers are

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.1 m m EDTA) and 50 µL of DNA grade water. DNA concentration was quantified in a spectrophotometer (UV10; Thermo Fisher Scientific). DNA concentration for all the samples was standardized to 20 ng·µL −1 . Genomic regions SSR markers. A total of 41 SSR

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, without epistatic and pleotropic effects and are interpretable as genes and loci. Molecular markers, which detect variation at the DNA level overcome most of the limitations of morphological and biochemical markers. As demonstrated by their use in various

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