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Globe artichoke ( Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus ) originated in the Mediterranean basin, where another two botanical varieties are present: C. cardunculus var. cardunculus (the cultivated cardoon) and C. cardunculus var. sylvestris

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that are able to grow under salt stress. Cardoon ( Cynara cardunculus L.) is a versatile plant adapted to Mediterranean conditions but limited information about its growth under salt stress is available. Cardoon, known as cynara for industrial

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. Ksouri, R. Chaieb, K. Karray-Bouraoui, N. Trabelsi, N. Boulaaba, M. Abdelly, C. 2008 Phenol composition of Cynara cardunculus L. organs, and their biological activities C. R. Biol. 331 372 379 Fernández, J. Curt, M.D. Aguado, P.L. 2006 Industrial

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Globe artichoke [ Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus (L.) Fiori] is a thistle-like perennial plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family. In commercial production, plants are usually grown from 1 to 4 years and occasionally up to 10 years

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. Ruta, C. Tagarelli, A. Morone-Fortunato, I. De Mastro, G. 2014 Effectiveness of mycorrhizal fungi on globe artichoke ( Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus ) micropropagation J. Plant Interact. 9 1 100 106 Cox, D. 2001 Growth, nutrient content, and

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A research project was conducted at the University of Tuscia, Viterbo (central Italy), to set up a vegetative propagation system for producing diseasefree artichoke transplants (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) of the Romanesco type (cultivar C3). The system included the following steps: 1) micropropagated plantlets were grown in a soilless culture year-round in greenhouse conditions, starting at the end of August; 2) stock plants were periodically treated with a chemical growth regulator [6-benzylamino purine (BA)] and then cut back at the collar level to promote offshoot production; 3) offshoots were periodically harvested and cold stored; and 4) cuttings were rooted at the end of spring under conditions of high humidity in multi-pack trays so as to be ready for summer transplanting. Results showed that the foliar application of BA to the stock plants increased the offshoot number quadratically to 200 mg·L-1. The rooting percentages of cuttings and root growth were enhanced by raising the cutting weight class (30-45 g) and by the application of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to the cutting root zone at a rate of 2000 mg·L-1. The percent rotten cuttings increased as the 2 °C cold-storage time increased from 30 to 150 days. Similarly, the percentage of rooting and root growth decreased approximately from 60 to 150 days.

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Research was conducted at the University of Tuscia (central Italy) to validate the propagation system for globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) described in a previous paper for a 1-year production cycle. The resulting globe artichoke plants were used in a 2-year field trial to investigate the field response of plantlets obtained with our propagation technique in comparison with plantlets produced by in vitro propagation and by offshoots harvested in commercial fields. The total number of artichoke plantlets obtained with our propagation system was 62.7 plantlets/m2 per year. In the first year, the globe artichoke production (bud number and fresh bud weight) was higher in plants obtained with our propagation system and by micropropagation than in those obtained from offshoots harvested in commercial fields. The production cost of plantlets obtained with our propagation technique was 52% lower than those of the micropropagated plantlets. This could lead to a significant reduction of production costs for artichoke growers, while preserving the advantages of in vitro propagation (disease-free plants and plant uniformity).

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Artichoke ( Cynara cardunculus L.) is a complex species, belonging to the Asteraceae family, and native to the Mediterranean Basin. According to Rottenberg and Zohary (1996) , it consists of the globe artichoke [var. scolymus (L.) Fiori], the

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Commercial production of globe artichoke [ Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus (L.) Fiori] in the United States is almost exclusively in California with major areas located along the central and south coast, the Coachella Valley in the southern

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.upov.int >. Valentão, P. Fernandes, E. Carvalho, F. Andrade, P.B. Seabra, R.M. Bastos, M.L. 2002 Antioxidative properties of cardoon ( Cynara cardunculus L.) infusion against superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, and hypochlorus acid J. Agr. Food Chem. 50 4989 4993

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