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family Cupressaceae. The Chinese Incense-cedar is native to southwest China and also in northern Vietnam, northern Laos, extreme northern Thailand, and northeastern Myanmar. It is a medium-sized tree to 25 to 35 m tall and trunk up to 2-m diameter with

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three conifer species for 10, 20, or 30 d resulted in the recovery a total 308 tetraploids, demonstrating the efficacy of oryzalin using this treatment to induce tetraploidy among three species in two genera of Cupressaceae. Literature Cited Contreras, R

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Platycladus orientalis , belonging to the genus Platycladus (Cupressaceae), is a single-species genus native to China that is currently cultivated throughout the world ( Li et al. 2016a ). P. orientalis is one of the conifer species with the

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environmental stress, and their expression patterns has been experimentally demonstrated to be affected by miR171 and miR482, respectively ( Qiu et al., 2016 ). To date, there are no reports on miRNA from Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco (Cupressaceae), an

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Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica (Thunb. ex L.f.) D. Don [Cupressaceae Bartling, formerly assigned to Taxodiaceae Warm.] is increasing in popularity as a landscape plant in the eastern United States. A taxonomic study of cultivars grown in the eastern United States was conducted. Forty-five cultivars were recognized. Each cultivar bears synonymy, a quantitative morphological description newly described from field data, herbarium vouchers, references to original literature and observational notes. A glossary of taxonomic terms relevant to Cryptomeria is presented. A taxonomic key is presented for segregation of cultivars that should assist professional plantsmen in identification of taxa cultivated in the eastern United States.

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Japanese-cedar [Cryptomeria japonica (L.f.) D. Don] represents an alternative to leyland cypress [×Cuprocyparis leylandii (A.B. Jacks. & Dallim.) Farjon] as an evergreen screen or specimen plant for landscapes. It performs well under a range of soil and environmental conditions but has been underused attributable, in part, to unsightly winter browning caused by photoinhibition. In previous studies, chance seedlings that did not exhibit winter browning were identified as tetraploids. The current study was conducted to induce polyploidy in japanese-cedar. Approximately 600 seedlings were sprayed with 150 μM oryzalin + 0.1% SilEnergy™ for 30 consecutive days under laboratory conditions. Two hundred thirty-seven seedlings with thickened and twisted leaves were selected, transplanted, and grown in a glasshouse for 120 days. Seedling ploidy levels were analyzed using flow cytometry 180 days after treatment (DAT), identifying 197 (83.1%) tetraploids, 22 (9.3%) cytochimeras, and 18 (7.6%) diploids. Morphology of induced tetraploids was similar to that previously described and provided a phenotypic marker during selection that was over 92% accurate. A random subset of 20 tetraploid individuals was analyzed 270 DAT and were found to contain only tetraploid cells in the leaves analyzed, confirming stability over this period. This study demonstrated the use of oryzalin for inducing tetraploids in japanese-cedar, which we predict will be effective in other gymnosperms.

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leafy and needly was detected in monterey cypress ( Fig. 3 ). Cytoplasmic DNA regions. Chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of most Cupressaceae species have been shown to be paternally inherited ( Kondo et al., 1998 ; Mogensen, 1996 ; Neale et al

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The identity of heath-leaved cypress is controversial. In this study nucleotide sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to identify heath-leaved cypress (Chamaecyparis `Ericoides') species. Sixteen individuals were sampled representing the five species of Chamaecyparis, `Ericoides', and four other genera of Cupressaceae (Cupressus, Fokienia, Juniperus, and Thuja). The results placed `Ericoides' unequivocally to Chamaecyparis thyoides, supporting a conclusion derived from wood anatomy. This study supports the usefulness and integrity of using molecular data to identify the genetic affinity of cultivars that are morphologically different from the parent species.

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Plants in the Cupressaceae family, which are widely distributed in the southern and northern hemispheres, are the only gymnosperms distributed worldwide (Zheng and Fu, 1978). P. orientalis , a monotypic genus belonging to Cupressaceae, is one of

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sugi ( Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) selected in the forest nursery Bul. Govt. For. Expt. Sta. (Tokyo) 49 99 109 Contreras, R.N. Ruter, J.M. Schwartz, B.M. 2010 Oryzalin-induced tetraploidy in Cryptomeria japonica (Cupressaceae) HortScience 45 316 319

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