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species to capitalize on the native plant market. Four ornamental and adaptable northeastern U.S. native shrub species that are relatively unknown in the horticultural trade are Ceanothus americanus (L.), Corylus cornuta (Marsh.), Lonicera canadensis

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two species of native American hazels, the common American hazel ( Corylus americana Walter) and the beaked hazel ( Corylus cornuta Marsh). The two American species may confer genetic resistance to Eastern Filbert Blight (EFB) as well as the cold

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Eastern filbert blight is an economically significant disease in European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) production in the United States. Since genetic resistance is the only viable disease control strategy to this fungal disease caused by Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller, greenhouse and field screening of germplasm was undertaken to study the inheritance from known resistant sources and to identify new sources for inclusion in the breeding program. We confirmed that `Gasaway' resistance to this disease is conferred by a single dominant gene. No major gen was identified in the field-resistant cultivar Gem. Representatives of six Corylus species were screened to identify new resistant germplasm. Corylus cornuta Marshall var. cornuta, C. cornuta var. californica (A.DC.) Sharp, C. heterophylla Fischer, and C. sieboldiana Blume were highly resistant, as were most C. americana Marshall genotypes and one C. colurna L. clone tested, but C. jacquenontii Decaisne was highly susceptible. In several cases, hybrids of these species with susceptible C. avellana were also resistant. These new sources of resisstance are being incorporated in the resistance breeding effort.

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Interspecific hybridization, pollen-stigma incompatibility, and DNA sequence analysis were used to study the relationships among hazelnut (Corylus) species. Interspecific crosses resulted in a wide range of cluster set from 0% to 65%. Reciprocal differences were common. In general, crosses involving C. avellana and C. heterophylla were more successful when used as pollen parents, but crosses involving C. americana were more successful when it was the female parent. C. cornuta, C. californica and C. sieboldiana intercrossed freely in both directions, as did C.colurna and C.chinensis. The Asian species, C. sieboldiana, C.heteropyhlla, and C. chinensis, were not cross-compatible with each other. Fluorescence microscopy showed that pollen-stigma incompatibility exists within and among wild hazelnut species, in addition to the cultivated European hazelnut C. avellana. Pollen-stigma incompatibility and embryo abortion (blank nuts) appear to be major blocks to interspecific gene flow. In addition, the chloroplast matK gene and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) were amplified and sequenced. The matK sequence was highly conserved and thus was not informative. However, the ITS sequence was highly informative and parsimony analysis agreed with morphological similarities. Corylus species were placed into four groups: 1) C. avellana, C. maxima, C. americana and C. heterophylla 2) C. colurna, C.chinensis, and C. jacquemontii 3) C. cornuta, C. californica and C. sieboldiana 4)C. ferox.

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Eight Corylus L. (hazelnut) species were intercrossed in all possible combinations to reveal genetic relationships. Pollinations were made on either individually bagged branches or trees covered entirely with polyethylene using mixtures of pollen of five genotypes to minimize low cluster set due to single incompatible combinations. Percent cluster set, seed germination, and hybrid seedling survival were determined. Hybridity of seedlings was verified by inspection of morphological traits. Based on percent cluster set, seed germination, and hybrid seedling survival along with observed morphological similarities, Corylus species were placed in three groups: 1) the tree hazels C. colurna L. (turkish tree hazel) and C. chinensis Franchet (chinese tree hazel), 2) the bristle-husked shrub species C. cornuta Marshall (beaked hazel), C. californica (A.DC.) Rose (california hazel), and C. sieboldiana Blume (manchurian hazel), and 3) the leafy-husked shrub species C. avellana L. (european hazel), C. americana Marshall (american hazel), C. heterophylla Fischer (siberian hazel), and C. heterophylla Fischer var. sutchuensis Franchet (sichuan hazel). The two tree hazel species crossed with each other readily, as did the three bristle-husked shrub species. The frequency of blanks was low (<20%) for crosses of the tree hazels, and <50% for interspecific crosses within the group of bristle-husked species. The leafy-husked shrub species could be crossed with each other in all directions, although cluster set on C. heterophylla was low. For crosses of species belonging to different groups, set was generally low and the frequency of blanks high. Nevertheless, a few hybrid seedlings were obtained from several combinations. When used as the female parent, C. californica set nuts when crossed with all other species, indicating possible value as a bridge species. Crosses involving C. avellana were more successful when it was the pollen parent. In crosses with C. avellana pollen, cluster set on C. chinensis was better than on C. colurna and the frequency of blanks was much lower, indicating that it might be easier to transfer nonsuckering growth habit from C. chinensis than from C. colurna. Reciprocal differences in the success of crosses was observed. The following crosses were successful C. californica × C. avellana, C. chinensis × C. avellana, C americana × C. heterophylla, C. cornuta × C heterophylla, C. californica × C. colurna, and C. americana × C. sieboldiana, but the reciprocals were not.

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The genus Corylus represents a diverse group of temperate woody plants, all of which produce edible nuts. The genus comprises anywhere from nine to 25 species depending on the taxonomic study with current revisions suggesting 11 to 13 polymorphic

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), and the beaked hazelnut, Corylus cornuta (Marsh.), bred through open cross-pollination. Recently, to maximize progress, a Hybrid Hazelnut Consortium was formed to join the leading hazelnut researchers in the United States at OSU, the Arbor Day

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The genus Corylus (2n = 2x = 22) is widely distributed across temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Various species can be found in Japan, Korea, and China, through Tibet, India, northern Iran, Turkey, and the Caucuses as well as in much

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Hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana ) are a major tree nut crop ranking fifth in world production behind cashews ( Anacardium occidentale ), almonds ( Prunus dulcis ), walnuts ( Juglans regia ), and chestnuts ( Castanea sp.). The top hazelnut

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, Crimea, Moldova, Poland, and Estonia ( Capik et al., 2013 ; Leadbetter et al., 2015 ; Molnar et al., 2007 ; S.A. Mehlenbacher and T.J. Molnar, unpublished data). EFB resistance has also been reported in other Corylus species including the shrubs C

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