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A BRIEF HISTORY OF CHESAPEAKE BAY RESTORATION EFFORTS For almost 30 years, the Chesapeake Bay has been targeted for water quality improvements with the goal of removing the Bay and its tributaries from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 303(d

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). To ensure human safety and protect the environment, the Environmental Protection Agency issued a total maximum daily load (TMDL) establishing limits to the amount of sediment and nutrients that can be discharged into tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay

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impacts to the Chesapeake Bay. Many Maryland growers have already implemented a number of BMPs to reduce nutrient and sediment runoff that are not typical to other regions of the country where legislation has not been as strong ( Majsztrik and Lea

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help inform growers, researchers, and extension and government agencies regarding variability in practices. This information can also be used to help inform legislation and modeling efforts, such as those currently underway in the Chesapeake Bay

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that exceed crop P demand, thus contributing to high P losses in runoff to the Chesapeake Bay watershed ( Kleinman et al. 2019 ). Although this excess P is one of the major threats to the health of the Chesapeake Bay in this region ( Kleinman et al

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Abstract

At the turn of the century, Baltimore, Maryland was the canning center of the nation. Vegetables from the Delmarva Peninsula and seafood from the Chesapeake Bay were brought by boat and train to the canneries located along the wharf. Now pollution problems and congested city conditions have all but closed the Baltimore canneries and trucks have taken over transportation. Yet acres of vegetables of the Peninsula continue to produce thousand of tons for the near-at-hand markets of the East Coast and for processors located at strategic points in production areas.

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This project funded, in part, by the Chesapeake Bay Restoration Fund Advisory Committee, Richmond, Va., and the Virginia Agricultural Council. The assistance of J.T. Custis and the farm crew in establishing and maintaining the research plots

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A multi-faceted extension education program to reduce consumer contributions to nonpoint source pollution by encouraging proper landscape management was initiated in Prince William County, Va., and funded through the USDA-extension service. The program now is being replicated in several counties in Virginia, primarily in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The program recruits participants through educational field days, advertisement and other means. Educational techniques include one-on-one assistance from Master Gardener volunteers and the use of Extension publications developed for this program. Publications developed include The Virginia Gardener Easy Reference to Sustainable Landscape Management and Water Quality Protection—a concise reference of Virginia Cooperative Extension landscaping recommendations that includes a calendar for recording fertilizer and pesticide applications, IPM, and other maintenance activities. The Virginia Gardener Guide to Water-wise Landscaping, was recently added to supplement the program in the area of water conservation. In Prince William County, over 700 people have participated. Most of those who complete the program report being more satisfied with their lawn appearance and spending less money. Participation also resulted in consumers being more likely to seek soil test information before applying fertilizer. Other effects include greater participation in leaf composting and grass clipping recycling and greater awareness of nonpoint source pollution.

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Maryland Chesapeake Bay crab industry generates ≈20 tons of crab waste annually. The crab waste compost (CWC) was a mixture of crab chum and saw dust that had an initial EC of ≈26 dS·m–1. In Fall 1994, soft-pinched single stem `Annette Hegg Red' poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima) in 15-cm azalea pots were grown in media containing Sunshine mix, 1 CWC: S base mix (BM), 1 CWC: 2 BM,. 1 CWC: 1 BM, or 2 CWC: 1 BM. Base mix is a 1 peat: 1 perlite (v/v). Fertigation treatment with 266 mg·liter–1 N from 30N–4.4P–8.8K was began on the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd week after potting. The total fertigations ranged from 8 to 10 for the 13-week study. With Sunshine mix, shoot height and canopy diameter were ≈15% greater than with 16% CWC mix and were ≈27% greater than with 67% CWC mix. There was a ≈10% decreased in the shoot height and canopy diameter with increasing %CWC in mix from 17% to 67%, but there was no difference in number of branches among the CWC mixes.

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Abstract

Seventy-five years ago U.S. pomology was caught up in a ferment which marks the ebb and flow of any great agricultural industry. The beginnings of great things to come were in sight, though perhaps unrecognized as such, while the end of other eras was at hand. San Jose scale was being conquered, while peach yellows had destroyed the vast peach industry which bordered the Chesapeake Bay, an industry which made Maryland the leading peach state for a while. The demise of the peach industry was followed shortly by runaway plantings of apples from the mountains of Appalachia westward to Ohio; curiously a similar overexpansion developed in Washington and Oregon as well at that time. South Carolina was just beginning to plant peaches, and it would be 20 years before Michigan would commence peach breeding at South Haven. New Jersey had supported orchard fertilization experiments for 20 years, other Northeastern states for nearly as long. Cultivars were called varieties, and there were great numbers of them in all commercial deciduous fruit orchards. The leading apple cultivar by far was ‘Ben Davis’, but Stark Bros. Nursery had owned Jesse Hiatt's apple for 10 years, and was well under way toward making the 20th century, the ‘Delicious’ century in American apple production. The first high density apple orchard was already 8 years old, this a planting of ‘Wealthy’ trees on seedling rootstocks, spaced 10 × 10 feet, at the Central Experimental Farm in Ottawa, Ontario. But this planting was an idea well ahead of its time, for more than 60 years would pass before the term “high density” would have any meaning in American or Canadian pomology.

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