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to manipulate light penetration is a routine management practice to raise and stabilize yields and also to improve fruit quality ( Oliveira et al., 1999 ). We recently showed that pruning date significantly reduces yield and that cane density has an

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Ten cultivars of muscadine grape, Vitis rotundifolia, Michx., were pruned to canes (25 cm) or conventional 3-bud spurs. During the first 5 years of production, significant differences in yield for the cane method were obtained with ‘Cowart’, ‘Higgins’ and ‘Hunt’. The yield of other cultivars was significantly increased in some years by cane pruning. Increased yield with cane pruning was correlated with vine size increase.

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The aim of this study was to determine the effects of date of summer pruning and cane densities on growth and fruiting characteristics of the raspberry (Rubus idaeus) plant. Three summer-pruning dates (early, middle, and late July) and four cane densities (8, 16, 24, and 32 canes/m row) were imposed to the greenhouse-grown primocane-fruiting raspberry `Autumn Bliss' in 2 consecutive years (1994 and 1995). A higher light microclimate and CO2 assimilation rate were measured within the canopy at the lowest density. Some compensation in CO2 assimilation rates were observed in the upper leaves of the high-density treatments, probably in response to low light. Delayed pruning decreased yield per cane and per row. The highest yields per cane were always observed at the lowest cane density. Densities of 16 and 24 canes/m produced the highest fruit yield. Light conditions appeared to be the most important environmental factor affecting plant productivity. Fruit were a weaker sink than roots; therefore, the role of carbohydrate reserves should be investigated.

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Dormant, 2-year-old, own-rooted `Chambourcin' grapevines (Vitis sp.) were subjected to two levels of root pruning (none, two-thirds roots removed) and were subsequently trained with either one or two canes. Vines were destructively harvested at bloom and after harvest when dormant to determine the effect of stored reserves in the root and competition between shoots for these reserves on vine growth and berry development. Removing 78% of the root system reduced shoot elongation and leaf area more effectively than did increasing the number of shoots per vine from one to two. Root pruning reduced the elongation rate of shoots for 45 days after budbreak, whereas increasing the shoot number reduced the shoot elongation rate for only 20 days after budbreak. A positive linear relationship was observed between leaf area per shoot at bloom and the number of berries per single cluster. These results demonstrate the importance of 1) the roots as a source of reserves for the initial development of vegetative tissues in spring, and 2) the rapid development of leaf area on an individual shoot for high set of grape berries on that shoot.

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Three years of observations were made at Oakville, California, on a vineyard trial of 3 pruning severities on 2 scion grape cultivars, Chardonnay and Gamay Beaujolais, grafted onto 2 phylloxera-resistant rootstocks, ‘St. George’ and ‘A × R #1’. There was a marked increase in crop production with decreased pruning severity. With ‘Chardonnay’ on ‘St. George’ there was nearly a 3-fold increase in yield when the pruning went from 5 retained buds/lb. (453.6g) of prunings to 15 buds/lb. With ‘Gamay Beaujolais’, the yield increase approached 2-fold. Vines on ‘A × R #1’ were markedly more fruitful than those on ‘St. George’, and this rootstock difference was not influenced by pruning severity over a 3-year period.

The variability in level of pruning, as estimated from a visual inspection of individual vines, was great. This could account for both low yields and high vine sizes with ‘Chardonnay’. The pruning level used by an experienced pruner was about 8 retained buds/lb. of prunings on average-sized vines of ‘Chardonnay’ on ‘St. George’, and about 6 buds on the largest vines.

The most severe pruning was very restrictive on yields per vine, and vine vigor was enhanced at these low bud counts. Fruit maturity was delayed by the least-severe pruning level and, in some instances, vine size was reduced the following year. Under the conditions of the test site, the intermediate level of pruning severity, 10 buds/lb. of prunings, was appropriate for the small-clustered, cane-pruned cultivars at the intermediate vine sizes.

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positioning 15 to 20 d after bloom, mechanical pruning to leave only fruiting canes below the high wire cordon, manual cane thinning, and mechanical scrubbing of green shoots originating above the cordon. Mechanical minimal pruning minimizes pruning cost, but

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Yield components responsible for yield variation within and among three `Cabernet Sauvignon' grape (Vitis vinifera L.) clones in a cane-pruned vineyard were determined over 2 years using a multivariate analysis procedure, two-dimensional partitioning (TDP). TDP analysis indicated that canes were producing at their capacity and yield per vine was limited by the number of canes retained. Yield per cane was limited by the portion of nodes at which shoots developed, and yield per shoot was limited by cluster number and fruit-set. The highest-yielding clone bore more fruit on non-cane shoots and fewer and larger clusters on cane shoots than the moderate-yielding clone. Poor fruit-set exhibited by the lowest-yielding clone resulted from inadequate or inviable pollen. In one year, thicker canes were more productive than thinner canes due to better bud burst and fruit set.

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trained using five training and pruning methods described as follows ( Figs. 3 and 4 ): 1) F-2T2C [Fan in 2015, converted in 2016 to the original training system used in the commercial vineyard; i.e., grapevines were head-trained with two trunks and cane

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Soft-tipping (removal of 2–5 cm) primocane-blackberry canes once ( Drake and Clark, 2003 ; Strik et al., 2008 and 2012 ; Thompson et al., 2009 ) or double-tipping (main cane and branches; Thompson et al., 2009 ) has been shown to increase yield

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from the pruning treatments, received the same level of management and environmental exposure. Harvest index was calculated by dividing fruit yield by cane weight ( Price and Munns, 2018 ). The growth index (GI) was calculated as GI = H + [(L + W)/2

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