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Michael J. Havey and Sunggil Kim

Hybrid-onion ( Allium cepa ) seed is produced using sources of CMS. The first source of onion CMS was described by Jones and Clarke (1943 ), and male sterility is conditioned by the interaction of the male-sterile (S) cytoplasm with the

Open access

Hsiang-I Lee and Michael J. Havey

Hybrid onions are widely grown throughout the world and are commonly produced using CMS lines as seed parents ( Havey, 2000 ). For the most commonly used source of CMS in onion, male sterility results from the interaction of male sterile (S

Open access

Bingqiang Wei, Lanlan Wang, Paul W. Bosland, Gaoyuan Zhang, and Ru Zhang

hybrid, and CMS greatly facilitates the production of F 1 hybrid seeds without the need for flower emasculation ( Chase, 2007 ; Hanson and Bentolila, 2004 ). The pepper CMS system was first reported by Peterson in 1958 from an Indian Capsicum annuum

Free access

Katrina J.M. Hodgson-Kratky and David J. Wolyn

plants such as maize ( Zea mays ), rice ( Oryza sativa ), canola ( Brassica napus ), and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) ( Kaul, 1988 ). It can be inherited nuclearly, in genic male sterility (GMS), or maternally, through the mitochondrial genome, in CMS

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Michael J. Havey and Christopher von Kohn

Hybrid onion ( Allium cepa L.) cultivars are widely grown around the world due in part to hybrid vigor and greater uniformity. Because onion has perfect flowers, production of hybrid seed is based on systems of CMS. For the most widely used CMS in

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Derek W. Barchenger, Joseph I. Said, Yang Zhang, Mingzhou Song, Franchesca A. Ortega, Yeasong Ha, Byoung-Cheorl Kang, and Paul W. Bosland

produce functional pollen in the CMS systems is controlled by the plant’s mitochondrial genome, and thus CMS is maternally inherited ( Ji et al., 2014 ). Over the past two decades, several types of CMS have been discovered. The two main classes of CMS are

Free access

Jolene Wright, Ann Reilley, Jean Labriola, Stephanie Kut, and Thomas Orton

An experiment was conducted to determine the types, extent, and heritability of new phenotypic variants recovered from carrot cell cultures initiated from mature tap-root explants of the male-fertile carrot (Daucus carota L.) `Slendero'. Embryogenic callus was transferred to plant-growth-regulator-free medium 66 days after culture initiation, and regenerated plantlets were harvested and eventually planted in a field. The tap roots of mature regenerated plants were vernalized at 5C for 9 weeks and replanted. Of 31 flowering regenerants, 25 exhibited some form of petaloid male sterility; the remaining six regenerants were male fertile. All plants from the same original explant were either all sterile or all fertile. Three generations of sterile regenerant × petaloid cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) maintainer (M) progeny tests showed that the new CMS behaved in a similar manner to that previously reported. Comparison of mitochondrial DNA restriction patterns of sterile and fertile regenerants with those of `Slendero', petaloid CMS, petaloid M, and brown anther CMS lines resulted in the following conclusions: 1) the sterile regenerants exhibited patterns identical to the known petaloid CMS and 2) the fertile regenerants were different from the original `Slendero' and the sterile regenerants and nearly identical to a known petaloid CMS M line. The high frequency of CMS among regenerants from `Slendero' carrot cell cultures may provide an efficient method to develop sterile M tandem lines and corresponding new hybrid varieties.

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John Jifon, Kevin Crosby, and Daniel Leskovar

High temperature stress is a major limitation to commercial production of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) in tropical and subtropical regions. The ability to sustain physiological activity under stress is an important trait for newer varieties. We evaluated leaf thermotolerance [based on the cell membrane stability (CMS) test] of three habanero pepper varieties to: 1) determine genetic variability in CMS among the genotypes studied; and 2) to assess correlations between CMS, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence [(CF), an indicator of membrane-dependent photosystem II quantum efficiency, ΦPSII]. The genotypes evaluated were TAM Mild Habanero (TMH, a recently developed mild habanero pepper) and its closely related parents (Yucatan and PI 543184). Net CO2 assimilation rate (An) of intact leaves was measured in the field and leaf samples collected and exposed to heat stress (55 °C for 20 min) in temperature-controlled water baths under dim light conditions. The CF was assessed before and after the heat treatment. The CMS was highest in PI 543184, lowest in TMH and intermediate in Yucatan. All genotypes maintained high An rates in the field (25 ± 6 μmol·m-2·s-1); however, correlations between An and CMS were weak. The Φ values were similar among the genotypes (∼0.8) under nonstress conditions, but differed significantly following stress exposure. PI 543184 had the highest post-stress ΦPSII values (0.506 ± 0.023), followed by Yucatan (0.442 ± 0.023) and TMH (0.190 ± 0.025). Observed differences in CMS and ΦPSII indicate plasticity in the response to heat stress among these genotypes.

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Trenton Hamada, Irene Terry, Robert Roemer, and Thomas E. Marler

the range of all of the cycad species’ pollen, ≈15.5 × 21.1 to 19 × 28 µm. All cycad species exhibited relatively low pollen settling velocities ( Table 2 ), with means ranging from 0.73 cm·s −1 for Zamia furfuracea to 1.29 cm·s −1 for Zamia sp

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Lucina Gómez-Pérez, Luis Alonso Valdez-Aguilar, Alberto Sandoval-Rangel, Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza, Rosalinda Mendoza-Villarreal, and Ana María Castillo-González

g S ; however, when conductance was higher than 0.280 cm·s −1 , like in plants with no supplemental Ca, DM accumulation tended to decrease. Our results show that alkalinity is associated with plant water relations by increasing ψ w in young leaves