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Allan Brown, Khalid Ibrahim, Sultana Islam, Elizabeth Jeffery, and John Juvik

A set of 216 PCR-based molecular markers was screened for polymorphisms using two morphologically dissimilar broccoli lines, `VI-158' and `BNC'. Fifty-nine of these markers, representing 69 detected polymorphisms and two morphological markers, were used to construct a genetic linkage map of broccoli [Brassicaoleracea (L.) var. italica] from a population of 162 F2:3 families generated from the cross between these two lines. Ten genetic linkage groups were generated that spanned a distance of 468 cM with an average interval width of 9.4 cm. This map represents the first combined SSR and SRAP map of Brassica oleracea. Comparisons are made to existing maps of Brassicanapus and to inter-specific maps of Brassicaoleracea. To our knowledge this is the first linkage map of broccoli [Brassicaoleracea (L.) var. italica] and should provide a useful tool for the genetic analysis of traits specific to the italica subspecies.

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Denise V. Duclos and Thomas N. Björkman

Brassica oleracea species differ in the developmental stage of their reproductive meristems at harvest. The stage that characterizes each variety depends on its genetic makeup, environment and the interaction between them. We tested a model of arrest in B. oleracea to determine functional redundancy among the paralogous genes CAL, AP1a, AP1c, FULa, FULb, FULc, and FULd; and to resolve the immediate effect of temperature on gene expression in meristems whose developmental fate is temperature regulated. By varying temperature during reproductive development, three stages of arrest were obtained: inflorescence meristem (cauliflower), floral meristem (intermediate) and floral bud (broccoli), the latter initiated by low temperature. Gene expression was measured by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The LFY/TFL1 ratio increased as the reproductive development advanced, mainly due to decreased TFL1 expression; influenced by a dramatic increase in AP1c toward floral bud formation. The expression patterns of the FUL paralogs indicate different roles in reproductive development. FULa was more abundant in the floral primordia, while FULb, FULc, and FULd were associated with earlier arrest at the inflorescence meristem stage. The high expression of FULc and FULd at all stages of arrest differs from their homolog in Arabidopsis. High temperature reduced AP1 and LFY expression but the meristem did not revert from reproductive to vegetative. Floral bud formation in plants recessive for AP1a and CAL reaffirm that functional redundancy among some of these genes can complement the mutations. Varying temperature alone, at a fixed developmental stage, caused little variation in the expression of genes studied, causing small significant differences in TFL1 and AP1c.

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Kang Mo Ku and John A. Juvik

activity of broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. var. italica ) J. Agr. Food Chem. 53 7421 7431 Farnham, M.W. Wilson, P.E. Stephenson, K.K. Fahey, J.W. 2004 Genetic and environmental effects on glucosinolate content and chemoprotective potency of broccoli

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Richard Smith, Michael Cahn, Timothy Hartz, Patricia Love, and Barry Farrara

of nitrogen and dry-matter partitioning and accumulation in broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica ) in relation to extractable soil inorganic nitrogen Can. J. Plant Sci. 79 277 286 Brennan, E.B. 2016 Can we grow organic or conventional

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Clifton A. Martin and Rebecca Grube Sideman

/sprouting-broccoli.aspx > Gray, A.R. 1982 Taxonomy and evolution of broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var italica ) Econ. Bot. 36 397 410 Gray, A.R. 1989 Taxonomy and evolution of broccolis and cauliflowers Baileya 23 28 46 Lamarre, M. Lareau, M.J. Payette, S. 1992 Influence des

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Honghui Gu, Jiansheng Wang, Huifang Yu, Zhenqing Zhao, Xiaoguang Sheng, Jisuan Chen, and Yingjun Xu

of bioactivation Chemico-Biol. Interaction 192 81 86 Gu, H. Zhao, Z. Sheng, X. Yu, H. Wang, J. 2014 Efficient doubled haploid production in microspore culture of loose-curd cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis ) Euphytica 195 467 475 Higdon

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Nicholas D. Warren, Richard G. Smith, and Rebecca G. Sideman

the duration of cover crop growth ( Teasdale, 1996 ). Annual green heading broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important fresh-market vegetable crop in the United States with annual production valued at an estimated $742.6 million in

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Zhi-Rong Li, Kang-Di Hu, Fen-Qin Zhang, Shi-Ping Li, Lan-Ying Hu, Yan-Hong Li, Song-Hua Wang, and Hua Zhang

Broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica ) is an important vegetable of high nutritional value and a common component of the human diet. Floral heads of broccoli are harvested during the immature stage when florets are composed of male and female

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Denise V. Duclos and Thomas Björkman

perspective J. Expt. Bot. 62 4415 4422 Björkman, T. Pearson, K.J. 1998 High temperature arrest of inflorescence development in broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica L.) J. Expt. Bot. 49 101 106 Blazquez, M.A. Green, R. Nilsson, O. Sussman, M.R. Weigel

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Elsa Sánchez, Thomas Butzler, Lee Stivers, Robert Pollock, Timothy Elkner, Steven Bogash, and William Lamont

High temperature arrest of inflorescence development in broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica L.) J. Expt. Bot. 49 101 106 Farnham, M.W. Björkman, T. 2011a Breeding vegetables adapted to high temperatures: A case study with broccoli HortScience