“ Brassica leafy greens” is a general term that includes several important vegetable crops, such as turnip greens ( Brassica rapa L.), mustard greens ( Brassica juncea L.), collards and kale ( Brassica oleracea L. Acephala Group). More than 28
W. Patrick Wechter, Mark W. Farnham, J. Powell Smith and Anthony P. Keinath
Sandra E. Branham, Mark W. Farnham, Shane M. Robinson and W. Patrick Wechter
-like leafy greens (germplasm information available from Dryad data repository, doi:10.5061/dryad.4851qq0). The Brassica leafy green commercial cultivars (obtained from Abbott and Cobb Seed Co., Feasterville, PA), ‘Topper’ ( B. rapa turnip green) and ‘Top
Timothy Coolong, Derek M. Law, John C. Snyder, Brent Rowell and Mark A. Williams
Leafy greens are a rich dietary source of nutrients including calcium, magnesium, potassium, and iron ( Kopsell et al., 2004 ). In addition, many leafy greens, particularly those of the Brassicaceae family, contain high levels of plant secondary
Charlene M. Grahn, Chris Benedict, Tom Thornton and Carol Miles
head lettuce-processing equipment ( Thompson and Wilson, 1999 ). Today, a diverse array of leafy green salad crops are grown for baby-leaf salad mix in the United States, including lettuce, spinach ( Spinacea oleracea L.), mustard greens ( Brassica
Michael C. Shannon, Catherine M. Grieve, Scott M. Lesch and John H. Draper
Saline agricultural drainage water may be used as a resource to grow high value horticultural crops and reduce the volume of drainage for eventual disposal. To explore reuse options the effects of salinity and timing of application were tested on selected leafy vegetables grown in 24 sand culture plots in Riverside, Calif. The leafy winter vegetables included `Ruby Red Chard' Swiss chard [Beta vulgaris L. var. flavescens (Lam.) Lam.], `Space' spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), `Vitamin Green' salad greens [Brassica rapa L. (Narinosa Group)], `Red Giant' mustard greens [Brassica juncea L. (Czerniak)], pac choi [Brassica rapa L. (Chinensis Group)], `Winterbor' kale [Brassica oleracea L. (Acephala Group)], tatsoi [Brassica rapa L. (Narinosa Group)], `Salad King' curly endive (Cichorium endivia L.), and `Red Preco No. 1' radicchio (Cichorium intybus L.). All vegetables were planted at the same time and irrigated initially with tap water and nutrients. At 3 and 7 weeks after seeding (application times), six salinity treatments were initiated by adding salts to the irrigation water to represent the chemical compositions of drainage waters found typically in the San Joaquin Valley, Calif. The six salinity treatments had electrical conductivities of 3 (control), 7, 11, 15, 19, or 23 dS·m-1. A randomized complete block design was used with (6 salinities × 2 application times × 2 replications). Within each plot a 1.5-m row of each of the nine vegetables was grown as split plots. Salinity reduced fresh weight (FW) yields of all species. Salt stress applied at 3 weeks after seeding reduced FWs for seven of the nine vegetables compared to salination at 7 weeks. Analyses of salt tolerance curves, maximum yields, and the point of 50% yield reduction (C50) were conducted. Greens produced the highest biomass at 874 g/plant, but was the most affected by application time. Swiss chard and radicchio were not significantly affected by timing of salinity application, and Swiss chard was the most salt tolerant overall. Greens, kale, pac choi, and to a lesser extent, tatsoi, have potential as winter-grown, leafy vegetables in drainage water reuse systems.
Richard L. Parish and Regina P. Bracy
Two studies were conducted on bed and row configurations. The first compared erosion effects on stand count with single and double drill plantings; the second evaluated bed heights. Vegetables are usually planted on raised beds in the Deep South. Both single and double drills per bed are common. The double drills offer higher yields in some cases, but may be difficult to maintain because of erosion on the bed sides after heavy rainfall. A series of plantings of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Italica group) was made over a period of nearly a year to compare stands from single and double drills. Heavy rainfall did not occur after any of the 18 plantings, so bed erosion did not occur. Differences in percent stand were few, although in a few cases the double drill planting resulted in higher stands. A field study was conducted to determine the optimum bed height for leafy greens crops grown on shaped beds. Bed heights of 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm (2, 4, 6, and 8 in) were evaluated with crops of mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czerniak.] and turnip (Brassica rapa L. Rapifera group) during three crop seasons. Few significant differences in stand count, yield, or product quality resulted from the different bed heights. A trend toward lower yields, quality, and reduced efficacy of precision cultivation was noted with the 5-cm (2-in) bed height.
Kristy A. Ott-Borrelli, Richard T. Koenig and Carol A. Miles
). Nitrate-N concentration in leafy greens can fluctuate diurnally because it is often inversely related to light intensity ( Muramoto, 1999 ; Reinink, 1991 ; Steingrover et al., 1986 ; Steingrover and Ratering, 1986 ). As a result of rapid NO 3 -N
W. Patrick Wechter, Melanie M. McMillan, Anthony P. Keinath, J. Powell Smith and Mark W. Farnham
Broadleaf’ has been selected to exhibit high levels of resistance to a bacterial leaf blight disease caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis ( Pca ). Leafy-green mustards are one type of Brassica “leafy greens” among several other important
Plants are the foundation for a significant part of human medicine and for many of the most widely used drugs designed to prevent, treat, and cure disease. Folkloric information concerning traditional remedies for disease has had inestimable value in establishing familial and cultural linkages. During the 20th century, modern medical science in the U.S. and other developed countries ushered in a new era focused on synthetic medicines. Even though many of these compounds were based on natural compounds found in plants, the drive towards synthetic pharmaceuticals created a knowledge gap concerning the health functionality of plants, crops, and food. Paralleling this development, biochemists and nutritional scientists pioneered the discovery of vitamins during the early decades of the 20th century. This research paved the way for dietary guidelines based on empirical data collected from animal feeding trials and set the stage for the current emphasis on phytonutrients. Three primary stages characterize the use of fruits and vegetable in human health. The first stage concerns the observation that many fruit and vegetable crops were originally domesticated for their medicinal properties. Making their way into the diet for this purpose, fruit and vegetable crops remained on the fringe from a culinary point of view. The second stage began when the role of vitamins became more widely understood, and fruit and vegetable plants were quickly recognized as a rich source of certain vitamins, minerals, and fiber. At this point, they became more than just an afterthought in the diet of most U.S. citizens. Cartoon icons such as Popeye made the case for the health functionality of leafy greens, while parents schooled their children on the virtues of carrots (Daucus carota), broccoli (Brassica oleracea), and green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). This renaissance resulted in large increases in fresh fruit and vegetable consumption across the country, a trend that continues to this day. The third phase can be characterized by the recognition that fruit and vegetable crops contain compounds that have the potential to influence health beyond nutritional value. These so-called functional foods figure prominently in the dietary recommendations developed during the last decades of the 20th century. In recent years, surveys suggest nearly two-thirds of grocery shoppers purchase food specifically to reduce the risk of, or manage a specific health condition. Evidence abounds that consumers, including Baby Boomers, choose foods for specific health benefits, such as the antioxidant potential of vegetables, suggesting high levels of nutritional literacy. Clinical and in vitro data have, to some degree, supported the claims that certain foods have the potential to deter disease, however much research remains to be conducted in order to definitively answer specific dietary-based questions about food and health.
William J. Sciarappa, Jim Simon, Ramu Govindasamy, Kathleen Kelley, Frank Mangan, Shouan Zhang, Surendran Arumugam, Peter Nitzsche, Richard Van Vranken, Stephen Komar, Albert Ayeni, Gene McAvoy, Chung Park, William Reichert, David Byrnes, Qingli Wu, Brian Schilling and Ricardo Orellana
mustard ( Brassica juncea ), sugar pea ( Pisum sativum ), chives ( Allium shoenoprasum ), garland chrysanthemum ( Chrysanthemum coronarium ), and shepherd’s-purse ( Capsella bursa-pastoris ). Major leafy greens and herbs preferred by east Indian consumers