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Abstract

Pyrazon (5-amino-4-chloro-2-phenyl-3(2H)-pyridazinone) was readily metabolized to the N-glucosyl derivative of pyrazon (N-2-chloro-4-phenyl-3(2H)-pyridazinone glucosamine) in red beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. Detroit Dark Red), but there was no metabolism of pyrazon in the 8 susceptible species examined. In leaf discs from 9 inbred lines of red beet, the percent conversion of pyrazon to the N-glucoside ranged from 44% to 76% after 10 hr. In 2 lines of red beet treated with 2 concentrations of pyrazon in nutrient culture, there was a direct relationship between the rate of pyrazon metabolism and plant tolerance.

Open Access

Abstract

Genetic variation in foliar symptoms of B deficiency in the seedling stage of red beet was observed among inbred lines and commercial cultivars grown in sand culture in growth chambers. F1, F2 and backcross populations between the most susceptible and tolerant lines, tested at .001 ppm B, indicated that susceptibility was conditioned primarily by a single dominant gene. No linkage was established between this gene and the gene controlling red leaf color.

The most susceptible line was inherently more vigorous than the most tolerant line but this relationship was not evident among the other inbreds and cultivars tested.

Boron deficiency sumptoms on leaves of both tolerant and susceptible lines were significantly accentuated by reducing the Ca(NO3)2 content of the nutrient solution from 8 to 7 mEq/litre without altering B content. At both Ca levels the B content was greater in the tolerant than in the susceptible line. When supplied with adequate Ca but low B the susceptible line contained higher Ca, Na and P and lower Mg than the tolerant line.

Open Access

The hypothesis that Al3+ interferes with membrane biophysical properties has been tested. Plasma membrane expansion/contraction in protoplasts isolated from red beet was induced by decreasing or increasing the osmolarity of extracellular solutions. The percentage of Iysed protoplasts was measured to characterize the effects of Al3+ on the ability of protoplasts to increase their plasma membrane surface area. In control solutions (800 mM sorbitol), 31.4% of protoplasts Iysed following osmotic dilution from 1200 mM. Al3+ treatment (5 mM) decreased the proportion of Iysed protoplasts by 7.7% and Ca2+ (5 mM) by 17% compared to control. Lanthanum (La3+), however, proved to be the most efficient ion for protection against Iysis (3.3%). Under hypertonic solutions, Al3+ treatment helped protoplasts maintain their roundness, diameter, and cross-sectional area compared to the control (1.5 M sorbitol), thus, altering the protoplasts “roundness” as determined by image analysis parameters. The results suggest that a decrease in the proportion of Iysed protoplasts in the presence of Al3+ may be induced due to changes in membrane permeability to water.

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Governmental recommended allowances for folic acid have increased dramatically in recent years, especially for pregnant women. Red beet is an important vegetable source of folic acid; however, little is known about the extent of variation for native folic acid content in red beet genotypes. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate variation in folic acid content (FAC) among red beet hybrids (F1), inbred lines (IL), plant introductions (PI), and open-pollinated cultivars (OP). Eighteen genotypes, including 12 F1 and six OP, were evaluated in field experiments during both years. Averaged over years, highly significant differences among genotypes and between F1 and OP were detected. FAC ranged from 3.7 mg to 15.2 mg per gram dry weight. The FAC in OP was 13% higher than in F1. Thirty genotypes, including 13 IL and 17 PI, were evaluated in greenhouse experiments during 1993 and 1994. Highly significant differences among genotypes and between IL and PI were detected. FAC varied from 1.54 mg to 11.13 mg per gram dry weight. The FAC in IL was 43% higher than in PI. These results demonstrate an approximate 10-fold variation among red beet genotypes for FAC.

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The effects of population density on shape and size of cylindrical red beet genotypes were evaluated in a field experiment during 1994 and 1995. Two F1 hybrids and two open-pollinated genotypes were planted in replicated trials consisting of three population densities. Yield, harvest weight, percent harvestable beets per plot, length, middle width, top width, bottom width, length × width, length to width ratio, and a shape index (SI) were measured on a sample of beet plants from each plot. The density × genotype interaction was nonsignificant for all 10 traits. Averaged over genotypes, significant differences among densities were found for harvest weight, percent harvestable beets per plot, length, middle width, and length × width. In general, greater harvest weights, a higher percentage of harvestable beets, and greater length, middle width, and length × width values were found at low density. Averaged over densities, significant differences among genotypes were measured for all 10 traits. The open-pollinated genotypes Cyndor and Cylindra exhibited lower yield, lower harvest weight, greater SI, and a higher percentage of harvestable beets than their hybrid counterparts. These data demonstrate that population density has a differential and significant effect on the shape and size of cylindrical beet genotypes.

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Table beet ( Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris ) and Swiss chard ( Beta vulgaris ssp. cicla ) are specialty crops grown for fresh markets, processing, and baby leaf salad greens. Wisconsin and New York are the leading producers of table beet in the

Open Access

unknown sources. Table 1. Commercial source, cultivar name, and species designation for cultigroups of table beet (garden beet group), mangel (fodder beet group), and swiss chard (leaf beet group) cultivars of Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris planted for

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Table beet ( Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris ) is a regionally important crop in the United States. Wisconsin leads U.S. production with more than 1600 ha devoted to production ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2017 ). A significant detriment to

Open Access

Wisconsin is the leading producer of table beet ( Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris ) in the United States, growing ∼30% of the country’s annual supply [US Department of Agriculture (USDA), National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) 2017]. Most

Open Access

growers. Literature Cited Acree, T. Lee, C. 1976 Geosmin, the earthy component of table beet odor J. Agr. Food Chem. 24 4 5 Bach, V. Mikkelsen, L. Kidmose, U. Edelenbos, M. 2015 Culinary preparation of beetroot ( Beta vulgaris L.): The impact on sensory

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