Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 34 items for :

Clear All

critically endangered round island bottle palm, Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (Arecaceae): Can cultivated stocks supplement a residual wild population? Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 167 301 310 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2011.01175.x Broschat, T.K. Donselman, H. 1986 Factors

Full access

With over 2000 species, the palm family (Arecaceae) is diverse ( Uhl and Dransfield, 1987 ). This diversity is manifest in numerous growth forms, textures, colors, and cultivation requirements. Palms are used in various interior and exterior

Free access

An emerging niche in landscape design is the creation of exotic venues in commercial and residential settings using unusual plant materials. For instance, the creation of a tropical looking pool area at a hotel, a southwestern desert look for a Mexican restaurant or an oasis for the consumer at a shopping venue can all be in part achieved by the addition of specific plants. Palms (Arecaceae) can be an important component of this effort, even in temperate landscapes. This article focuses on issues related to the incorporation of palms in temperate landscapes. Although palms are signature plants of tropical regions, a surprising number of species can be grown in U.S. Department of Agriculture cold hardiness zones 8, 7, or colder via a combination of appropriate genotype selection, attention to microclimates in design specifications, and/or special cultural practices to mitigate the impact of cold temperatures. Cold-tolerant palms can be a critical design element, especially when paired with other lush tropical-appearing plants, to achieve the goal of creating the illusion of an exotic tropical locale in temperate-climate landscapes. Genotypic and site specification, careful attention to establishment requirements, and modified maintenance practices are critical determinants for success that will be addressed.

Free access

Asian Palmyra palm (2 n = 36), found widespread in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, is a monocotyledonous dioecious woody perennial tree in the Arecaceae family. This palm tree is important for local agriculture and economies as its

Free access

Abstract

Pollen samples of 4 cultivars and clones of Phoenix dactylifera L., 2 clones of P. reclinata Jacq. and one clone each of P. humilis Royle, P. roebelenii O’Brien × P. paludosa Roxb., P. rupicola T. Anderson and P. sylvestris (L.) Roxb. were compared using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). All grains were monosulcate, elliptical, and had tectate-perforate exines. Cultivars could be distinguished by differences in pollen morphology and exine structure. Characters that showed morphological variation included presence or absence of wax-like substances, grain length, grain width, and grain length:width ratio. Diverse structural characteristics included shape, pattern, size, and frequency of tectal perforations. Morphological and structural characteristics of pollen may serve as an aid in the taxonomic identification of staminate cultivars in Phoenix.

Open Access
Author:

Comprising a natural and distinctive group, palms (Arecaceae) differ from other woody plants in their structure and growth features that require or offer unique and sometimes advantageous landscape management opportunities. Although palms are a mostly tropical group that lacks dormancy and cold tolerance, there are numerous species possessing sufficient cool or cold hardiness to be suitable for landscaping in subtropical and even some temperate areas. The habit of palms is largely dependent on the number of stems and the length to which they elongate. There are solitary or multistemmed palms and tree or shrub palms. Regardless of habit, there is typically only one growing point or apical meristem per palm stem. Thus, multistemmed palms may be especially versatile landscape subjects because in many instances, one is able to control height and density by judicious removal of stems. The uniquely constructed palm stem, with growth restricted to its extremities (leaves and inflorescences distally, roots proximally, and wholly the product of primary growth), is composed largely of numerous, dispersed, hard, fibrous-sheathed, vascular bundles embedded in a matrix of water- and carbohydrate-storing parenchyma cells. Often likened to a steel-reinforced concrete column and offering tremendous strength and resiliency, palm stems lack a peripheral vascular cambium and, thus, capability for secondary growth, meaning they do not thicken much once they elongate vertically and there is no ability to repair damaged tissue. Thus, care should be taken when performing horticultural tasks to avoid making wounds (which are permanent, unsightly, and potential entry sites for pests and diseases) and damaging the sole apical meristem. A palm's total photosynthetic and reproductive efforts are concentrated into relatively few but large organs (leaves and inflorescences respectively), offering a unique opportunity to capture an entire year's worth of potential leaf, flower, and fruit litter before it falls into the landscape. The palm root system is adventitious and composed of numerous, small- to medium-sized, nonwoody roots. All primary roots are of a more or less constant diameter and arise independently from an area at or near the base of the stem called the root initiation zone. Because of these root system characteristics and the ability of their trunks to store water and carbohydrates, palms are relatively easy to transplant—even large specimens with small root balls—resulting in instant, mature landscapes.

Free access

Since the mid-1990s, several new pathogens and diseases have emerged on palms (Arecaceae) growing in Florida. These include two formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum, with f. sp. canariensis causing fusarium wilt of canary island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) and a new forma specialis causing Fusarium wilt of queen palm (Syagrus romanzoffiana) and mexican fan palm (Washingtonia robusta). The texas phoenix palm decline phytoplasma (‘Candidatus Phytoplasma palmae’ subgroup 16SrIV-D), which causes a lethal yellowing-type disease, has been detected in date palms (Phoenix spp.), queen palm, and cabbage palm (Sabal palmetto). New rachis (petiole) blight pathogens include Cocoicola californica on mexican fan palm and Serenomyces species on several palm species.

Free access

Successful reestablishment of transplanted palms [members of the Arecaceae (Palmae)] depends on rapid regeneration of roots, avoiding injury and desiccation of the trees during transit and handling, and maintaining sufficient soil moisture around the root balls after transplanting. Since landscape contractors and nurserymen spend considerable resources and labor transplanting specimen palms, understanding the seasonality of palm root growth, how palm roots respond when trees are dug, and the effects of canopy manipulation during transplanting will enable them to adopt effective and rational transplanting practices. This manuscript provides a review of research findings that can be applied to maximize reestablishment of transplanted specimen palms.

Full access

A new name for an old plant is not necessarily welcome in the horticultural trades or in plant identification classes, but some name changes have been in existence long enough that textbooks and trade publications should have caught up with them. The objective of this poster is to call attention to some of these changes for horticultural plant identification courses. Traditional references such as Hortus Third (1976) and Exotica 8 (Graf, 1976) have been superseded by the second edition of The Plant Book (Mabberly, 1997) and The Index of Garden Plants (Griffiths, 1994), while some recent works (The Tropical Look, Riffle, 1998) have chosen to retain old names. The taxonomic research underlying a new book, Tropical Garden Flora (Staples and Herbst, in press), based on the second edition of In Gardens of Hawaii (Neal, 1965), has produced an abundance of name changes. This poster will illustrate and report genera and species name changes that have occurred for selected ornamentals in the Acanthaceae, Agavaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Arecaceae, Commelinaceae, and Moraceae families plus a few others.

Free access

The optimum time to transplant palms (Arecaceae) is at the beginning of the warm season in temperate climates or at the beginning of the rainy season in tropical climates if irrigation is unavailable. Careful and proper handling, including covering and protecting the leaves and root ball during transplanting to protect them from injury and drying out and immediate planting upon arrival at the new site, helps to ensure rapid and successful establishment. A root ball extending out from the trunk for 30 cm appears to be adequate for most solitary-stemmed species. Larger root balls may be necessary for multistemmed or unusually tall or large specimens. Tying up leaves facilitates handling during digging, transport, and planting, but it is best to untie them after planting. In most instances leaf removal during transplanting does not appear to be advantageous, and it is probably best to remove leaves only when they die and turn brown. Too deep or too shallow planting lowers transplant success and stresses palms, making them susceptible to diseases, disorders, and pests. Amending the backfill when transplanting palms is not beneficial in most cases. However, mulch applied around the base of the palm after transplanting can enhance growth. Keeping the soil, backfill, and surrounding site soil evenly moist helps to ensure successful establishment.

Free access