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  • Amaranthus palmeri x
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species that are especially inhibited by biofumigation include annual weeds with seeds ∼1 mm in diameter ( Boydston and Hang 1995 ; Norsworthy et al. 2007 ). Such species include Palmer amaranth ( Amaranthus palmeri ), redroot pigweed ( Amaranthus

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60 Bond, J.A. Oliver, L.R. 2006 Comparative growth of palmer amaranth ( Amaranthus palmeri ) accessions Weed Sci. 54 121 126 10.1614/WS-04-155R2.1 Collins, K.B. McNeil, R.E. Weston, L.A. 2001 Evaluation of sulfentrazone for weed control and

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amaranth and large crabgrass growth with plasticulture-grown bell pepper Weed Technol. 22 296 302 Norsworthy, J.K. Malik, M.S. Jha, P. Riley, M.B. 2007 Suppression of Digitaria sanguinalis and Amaranthus palmeri using autumn-sown glucosinolate

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greenhouse, and 2) confirm that the MSM rates used in our study inhibit emergence of a weed (Palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmeri ) and growth of a soilborne pathogen ( Phytophthora capsici ) that are common problems during the middle and later phases of

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Growth of `Apache' pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] seedlings was evaluated for 3 years when grown in a 11.2-m2 weed-free area or when various combinations of one or two plants of cutleaf evening primrose (Oenothera laciniata Hill), a cool-season species, or Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.), a warm-season species, were grown 30 cm from the tree, with the rest of the 11.2-m2 area weed-free. Either weed species alone suppressed tree growth compared to the weed-free control. A temporal succession of primrose followed by amaranth reduced growth most. After 3 years, two plants of primrose followed in succession by two of amaranth caused a 79% reduction in cumulative current-season's growth.

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Abstract

The performances of several herbicides incorporated to a depth of 2.5 and 7.6 cm in sandy loam and sandy clay loam were studied in cabbage plantings in 3 field experiments. Herbicidal activity of O, O-diisopropyl phosphorodithioate S ester with N -(2-mercaptoethyl) benzenesulfonamide (bensulide) and a,a,a-trifluoro-2, 6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-toluidine (trifluralin) was outstanding. These herbicides controlled Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) and barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.] without reducing yields of cabbage (Brassica oleracea, var. capitata L.) ‘Improved Globe YR’. Dimethyl tetra-chloroterephthalate (DCPA) and 2-chloroallyl diethyldithiocarbamate (CDEC) were less effective. Trifluralin performed more efficiently when depth of incorporation was 7.6 cm compared to 2.5 cm. CDEC performed better when incorporated at a depth of 2.5 cm. Performance of bensulide and DCPA was unaffected by depth of incorporation.

Bioassays indicated that regardless of rainfall, bensulide, DCPA, and trifluralin remained within the original soil zones of incorporation. Trifluralin persisted longer in the soil as depth of incorporation was increased. Under high temperatures, infrequent rainfall, and furrow irrigation, the half-life of trifluralin treatments was 1 to 2 weeks; there was no measurable biological activity in treatments incorporated to 2.5 cm after 3 to 6 months, or after 9 months when treatments were incorporated 7.6 cm. The half-life of DCPA was 1 month with no activity after 6 months regardless of incorporation depth. Bensulide was most persistent, with no activity 12 months after the 2.2 kg/ha rate, and 24 months after the 4.5 and 9.0 kg/ha rate of application, regardless of incorporation depth.

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the following eight plant species: Penstemon palmeri (Palmer penstemon), Mirabilis multiflora (desert four o'clock), Geranium viscosissimum (sticky geranium), Eriogonum jamesii (James buckwheat), Echinacea purpurea (purple coneflower

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Covington sweetpotato cultivars with Palmer amaranth [ Amaranthus palmeri (S.) Wats] interference. Because relatively few herbicides are registered for sweetpotato, chemical weed management is challenging ( Harrison and Jackson, 2011b ). Flumioxazin, S

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an excellent cover crop ( Barnes and Putnam, 1987 ; Mwaja et al., 1995 ). With an average biomass of 6250 kg·ha −1 at termination, cereal rye alone can reduce palmer amaranth ( Amaranthus palmeri ) emergence up to 50% ( Reeves et al., 2005

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L.), and Palmer amaranth ( Amaranthus palmeri S. Watts). Yellow and purple nutsedge affect sweetpotato yield and quality negatively, and are the most difficult-to-control weeds in sweetpotato across the Southeast because of the high rainfall

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