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affecting horticultural crops. To our knowledge, the antibacterial activity of silver maple ( Acer saccharinum L.), a species often used as ornamental crop frequently encountered in the eastern United States and eastern Canada ( Gabriel, 1990 ) generating

Open Access

A single clone of Acer saccharinum was selected and propagated from each of 15 provenances across the plant native range. The clones were field grown in Carbondale, Ill., during the study period. Plants were sampled during Winter 1992-93 and 1993-94 and assayed for low-temperature tolerance. During both winters, plants exhibited greatest variation in tolerance around the November and April sampling dates. In midwinter, there was little variation observed and 13 of 15 clones were tolerant to at least -40C. The relationship among Acer saccharinum provenance and cold tolerance curves will be discussed.

Free access

Abstract

Twenty-one phenolic compounds in combination with indoleacetic acid (IAA) were applied to mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) cuttings. Catechol, pyrogallol, salicylic acid, and tannic acid stimulated adventitious root initiation in mung bean and were further tested on Acer saccharinum L. Catechol stimulated root initiation in softwood cuttings of Acer saccharinum. Softwood cuttings of Acer griseum Pax. rooted 100% when treated with a combination of catechol (4.5 × 10-3 M) and IAA (1.1 × 10-3 M) for 24 hours and several combinations of catechol and IAA also stimulated the number of roots per cutting of this species.

Open Access

A factorial combination of gibberellic acid (GA3) and benzyladenine (BA) was applied in 20% white exterior latex paint to large (40 cm long, >2.5 cm diameter) stem segments of Acer saccharinum L. (silver maple) to determine the effects on forcing new softwood shoots in the greenhouse or laboratory and the subsequent growth of these new shoots in vitro. Stem segments were harvested from 10-year-old field-grown coppice shoots. The GA3/BA-paint mixes were applied to the entire stem segments that were forced in plastic flats filled with 1 perlite: 1 vermiculite (by volume) and watered with care so as not to wet the new softwood shoots. The flats and stem segments were drenched weekly with Zerotol (0.18% H2O2). The softwood shoots were harvested when they were at least 3 cm long. After disinfesting and rinsing, the nodal and shoot tip explants were established aseptically in vitro on DKW medium with no cytokinin or with 10-8M thidiazuron. Coppice shoots were harvested, cut, and painted on 9 Sept., 28 Oct., and 12 Dec. 2005. Although there were no significant differences in shoot production among stem segments painted with various combinations of GA3/BA, stems treated with plant growth regulators produced a mean of 2.7, 1.8, or 0.5 shoots for the three harvest dates compared to 0.5, 0.0, or 0.25 shoots on control stem segments. It is well-known that shoot forcing is poor from September through January; however, use of GA3/BA resulted in growth of dormant epicormic shoots. Shoot tip explants produced the most shoots in vitro after 8 weeks if they were harvested from stem segments treated with 0.03 mM GA3, whereas nodal explants produced the most shoots if harvested from segments that had been treated with 0.01 mM GA3.

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Silver maple has great potential as a biomass feedstock. We compared three clones from each of seven provenances located on east to west and north to south transects across the natural range of silver maple and one red maple. DNA extracted by a modification of the CTAB technique (Murray and Thompson, 1980) was not suitable for RAPD analysis. Using this technique, polymorphism was either not reproducible or there was poor amplification for some clones. A new DNA extraction technique using PVPP, chloroform, and cesium chloride was tested (a modification of Yoon et al., 1991). this method yielded DNA that was more suitable for PCR amplification. Both RAPD and DAF (Caetano-Anolles and Gresshoff, 1994) methods were used for amplification. Polymorphism was detected among and within provenances. DAF was more efficient than RAPDs for determination of the genetic relationship among silver maple clones.

Free access

Silver maple has great potential as a biomass feedstock. We selected 21 elite silver maple clones representing 7 provenances located on east to west and north to south transects across the natural area of distribution. In addition five different red maples including one commercial cultivar as well as four interspecific hybrids between red and silver maple were compared to the silver maples. DNA was extracted using a modification of the CTAB technique (Murray and Thompson, 1980). Polymerase chain reaction was used with random primers from the OPF series (1-20) and primers used by Krahl et al. (1993). Polymorphism was detected at high frequency. Greater polymorphism was observed between species than within species. However, we have observed DNA concentration dependent polymorphism. RAPD technology has potential for determination of genetic relationship among silver maple clones.

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During the research phase, a system was developed to clonally micropropagate silver maple. Explant performance was best on DKW medium with 10 nM thidiazuron, and explants commonly developed 1 7 shoots after three months and over 60 shoots that could be rooted after four months in vitro. Plants were rooted (>90%) and acclimatized under intermittent mist and transplanted to an outdoor nursery bed. However, results were different during the production phase when 90 clones were propagated. Shoot proliferation rates were lower, differences in clonal response and worker efficiency were apparent, mass rooting under mist was inconsistent and acclimatization problems arose. The mean rooting was 46% under mist because of uneven coverage. Only 56% of rooted plantlets acclimatized which resulted in an overall efficiency of 26%. Partial solutions included root initiation in vitro, and use of fog for acclimatization.

Free access

The objectives of this research were to study the effects of three environments (lab, mist, or fog), four media treatments [perlite, vermiculte, 1 perlite: 1 vermiculite (by volume), or a control (empty flats)] and zerotol treatments on shoot forcing and subsequent transfer of explants to in vitro conditions. Stem segments from field-grown trees were cut to 40-cm lengths before being placed in flats with the media treatments. Half of the flats under mist and fog were drenched weekly with zerotol (0.18% H2O2). In a separate study, silver maple was forced under mist and drenched weekly with zerotol at 0%, 0.09%, 0.108%, 0.135%, 0.18%, 0.27%, or 0.54% H2O2. Shoots (≥5 cm) were harvested and nodal and shoot tip explants were surface disinfested and placed in vitro on DKW medium with 10-8 M thidiazuron plus 1.0 μM indolebutyric acid. Species did not interact with environment, media, or zerotol treatment, and silver maple produced a mean of 6 shoots per stem segment, while green ash produced a mean of 1.2 shoots. There was a significant interaction among perlite, vermiculite and environment, with the most shoots (6.7/stem segment) produced under mist in the perlite: vermiculite mix. Silver maple explants from the lab had only 4% microbial contamination, whereas 68% of explants from fog and 92.2% of explants from mist were contaminated. When forcing was under fog, in perlite, and drenched with zerotol, explants had a 43% rate of contamination. In a separate study, when silver maple stems were placed under mist and drenched weekly with 0.18% H2O2, 46% (18 of 39 explants) established cleanly in vitro. Contamination was higher with misted explants that were drenched with higher or lower concentrations of zerotol.

Free access

Abstract

Columns of discolored and decayed wood associated with 42 wounds in silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) were examined with a pulsed-current resistance meter (Shigometer) prior to dissection. Resistance measurements, expressed as a percentage of control readings, were correlated to depth, cross-sectional areas, and calculated volume of the discolored and decayed wood column. The instrument accurately detected the presence and depth of discolored wood. Relative decay volume could be established in a nondestructive manner.

Open Access

Abstract

Methanolic extracts from leaves, young stems, and old stems of five Acer (maple) spp. were tested for their effects on adventitious root initiation in mung bean (Vigna radiata Wilcox’) cuttings. An extract from the leaves of A. ginnala strongly stimulated root initiation, and the active compounds in this fraction were not synergistic with IAA. This extract was more stimulatory than IAA on mung bean cuttings and stimulated root initiation in softwood cuttings of A. saccharinum and A. griseum. Preliminary characterization of this extract indicates that it is a phenolic compound and/or a weak acid. Chemical name used: 1H-indoIe-3-acetic acid (IAA).

Open Access