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Ke-peng Che, Chun-yang Liang, Yue-guang Wang, De-min Jin, Bin Wang, Yong Xu, Guo-bing Kang, and Hai-ying Zhang

Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses were used to assess genetic diversity among 30 genotypes of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf.] representing a broad genetic base, including breeding lines and commercial germplasm. Eight AFLP primer combinations selected from 64 primer combinations were polymophic. The polymorphism was 13.0% to 31.9% within the 28 cultivars examined, and 45.3% to 64.2% among all the genotypes. Each genotype could be successfully distinguished based on AFLP scoring. Cluster grouping of accessions based on the AFLP analysis was consistent with that from classification by pedigrees and ecotypes.

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Jelka Šustar-Vozlič, Marko Maras, Branka Javornik, and Vladimir Meglič

There is a long tradition of common bean cultivation in Slovenia, which has resulted in the development of numerous landraces in addition to newly established cultivars. The genetic diversity of 100 accessions from the Genebank of the Agricultural Institute of Slovenia (AIS) were evaluated with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and phaseolin seed protein. Twenty-seven standard accessions of known Mesoamerican and Andean origin, 10 wild Phaseolus vulgaris accessions and two related species, P. coccineus L. and P. lunatus L., were also included. Ten AFLP primer combinations produced 303 polymorphic bands, indicating a relatively high level of genetic diversity. Based on the marker data, unweighted pair group method with arithmethic mean (UPGMA) analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) all P. vulgaris accessions were separated into three well-defined groups. Two groups consisted of accessions of Mesoamerican and Andean origin, while the third was comprised of only four wild P. vulgaris accessions. A set of Slovene accessions formed a well-defined sub-group within the Andean cluster, showing their unique genetic structure. These data were supported by phaseolin analysis, which also revealed additional variants of “C” and “T” phaseolin types. The results are in agreement with previous findings concerning diversification of common bean germplasm introduced in Europe.

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N. Xiang, Y. Hong, and L.T. Lam-Chan

Intensive breeding activities of tropical orchids have given rise to many hybrids, among which genetic relationships are difficult to evaluate due to free interbreeding of different species in the same genus or even from different genera, the use of hybrids for further breeding, use of abbreviated or trade names and sometimes intentional non-disclosure of parentage for commercial considerations. We have subjected 43 popular commercial Dendrobium hybrids to fluorescence amplified length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and their genetic relationship was estimated. The hybrids bearing flowers of similar shapes and colors were clustered into five groups. Each hybrid tested had a distinct AFLP fingerprint profile except the tissue culture mutants. Sibling hybrids were closely clustered (with genetic distance <0.09) followed by those sharing one parent. These results suggest that AFLP fingerprint profiling gives accurate and objective estimation of genetic relationship of the Dendrobium hybrids tested. Our study also found that the AFLP fingerprint profiles were uniform in different parts of tested plants, stable among individuals in vegetatively propagated populations throughout different growth periods. We conclude that AFLP fingerprint profiling has the potential to be an integral part of current new plant varieties protection sytems.

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Salih Kafkas, Hakan Ozkan, and Mehmet Sutyemez

Turkey has more than 4 million walnut trees (Juglans regia L.), most of which are derived from seedlings, and are nongrafted trees. This characteristic leads to a huge opportunity to select superior walnut genotypes from natural populations for cultivation and for breeding programs. Several selection studies have been performed in the last decades and few genotypes were selected. The goal of this study was to characterize and determine genetic relationships among 21 walnut genotypes with potential in walnut production using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and selective amplification of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL) techniques. Eight primer combinations (six for AFLP and two for SAMPL) were applied to 21 walnut genotypes and a total of 230 bands of which 50.4% of them were polymorphic were obtained. The SAMPL technique was more effective than AFLP in the separation of very closely related genotypes. Genotypes of the pairs `Maras-18' with `Maras-46', `KSU-5' with `Sutyemez-1', `Maras-12' with `Sutyemez-2,' `Kaman-3' with `Kaman-4', and `KSU-11' with `Maras-10' were the most closely related.

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Naomi R. Smith, Robert N. Trigiano, Mark T. Windham, Kurt H. Lamour, Ledare S. Finley, Xinwang Wang, and Timothy A. Rinehart

amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) ( Vos et al., 1995 ). Amplified fragment length polymorphisms are widely used because they can be generated without prior knowledge of an organism's genome and are generally reproducible within and between

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Salih Kafkas, Mustafa Özgen, Yıldız Doğan, Burcu Özcan, Sezai Ercişli, and Sedat Serçe

cultivars ( Bhattacharya et al., 2005 ). Among polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular markers, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) are highly reproducible multilocus marker system developed by Vos et al. (1995) . This method has

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Ryan S. Donahoo and Kurt H. Lamour

diversity of Phytophthora isolates within species, including isozymes, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, random amplified polymorphic DNA markers, microsatellites, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers ( Bhat and Browne, 2007

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Samuel G. Obae, Mark H. Brand, and Richard C. Kaitany

cultivars. AFLP is one of the techniques that could be used to develop molecular markers to identify and differentiate B. thunbergii cultivars. AFLP is a DNA fingerprinting assay that combines restriction enzyme digestion and polymerase chain reaction (PCR

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Lydia E. Wahba, Nor Hazlina, A. Fadelah, and Wickneswari Ratnam

relationship among 31 Dendrobium species and Shengnan et al. (2011) determined the genetic diversity among 31 species of Dendrobium species using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. AFLP markers are dominant markers. The AFLP technique can generate

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Jack E. Staub, Matthew D. Robbins, Yingmei Ma, and Paul G. Johnson

9025897. Because historical information about this population is limited, very little is known about the genetic or morphological characteristics of this plant material. Using five plants of FEID 9025897 in an AFLP-based analysis, Jones et al. (2008