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Timothy L. Grey, David C. Bridges, and D. Scott NeSmith

Field studies were conducted in 1993, 1994, and 1995 to determine tolerance of seeded and transplanted watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nak.] to clomazone, ethalfluralin, and pendimethalin using method of stand establishment (directseeded vs. transplanted) and time of herbicide application [preplant soil incorporated (PPI), preplant to the surface (PP), or postplant to the surface (POP)] as variables. Yield and average fruit weight in plots with clomazone were equal to or greater than those in control plots for the 3-year study regardless of method of application. Bleaching and stunting were evident with clomazone in early-season ratings, but injury was transient and did not affect quality or yield. Of the three herbicides, ethalfluralin PPI resulted in the greatest injury, stand reduction, and yield reduction of the three herbicides. Pendimethalin (PPI, PP, or POP) reduced yield of direct-seeded but not of transplanted watermelon. Chemical names used: 2-[(-2-chlorophenyl)methyl]-4, 4-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinone (clomazone); N-ethyl-N-(2-methyl-2-propenyl)-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzenamine (ethalfluralin); N-(1-ethylopropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin).

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Timothy L. Grey, David C. Bridges, and D. Scott NeSmith

Field studies were conducted in 1993, 1994, and 1996 to determine the tolerance of several cultivars of zucchini and yellow crookneck squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) to various rates and methods of application of clomazone, ethalfluralin, and pendimethalin. Applying herbicides preplant soil incorporated (PPI), preemergence (PRE), at seedling emergence (SE), or early postemergence (EPOT) resulted in plant injury that varied from 0% to 98%. Ethalfluralin and pendimethalin (PPI) at 1.12 kg·ha–1 a.i. resulted in the greatest stand and yield reductions across all cultivars. Fruit number and weight declined for all cultivars in 1993 and 1994 as the amount of pendimethalin applied PRE was increased. Zucchini (`Senator') fruit size was significantly reduced for the first three harvests in 1993 by PRE application of pendimethalin or PPI application of ethalfluralin, at all rates. Yellow squash (`Dixie') fruit size was unaffected by herbicide treatment for any harvests during 1993 or 1996. Yellow and zucchini squash yield, fruit number, and average fruit weight were equal to, or greater than, those of the untreated control for PRE clomazone using either the emulsifiable concentrate formulation (EC) during 1993, 1994, and 1996 or the microencapsulated formulation (ME) during 1996. Foliar bleaching and stunting by clomazone was evident in early-season visual observations and ratings, but the effect was transient. Foliar bleaching by clomazone PPI (1.12 kg·ha–1 a.i.) was more evident in `Senator' zucchini, and yield was significantly reduced in 1993. These effects of clomazone PPI were not evident in 1994 for either `Elite' or `Senator' zucchini squash. Chemical names used: 2-[(2-chlorophenyl)methyl]-4, 4-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinone (clomazone); N-ethyl-N-(2-methyl-2-propenyl)-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzenamine (ethalfluralin); N-(1-ethylopropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin).

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Timothy L. Grey, David C. Bridges, and D. Scott NeSmith

1 Assistant Research Scientist, Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences. E-mail address: tgrey@gaes.griffin.peachnet.edu 2 Professor, Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences. 3 Professor, Horticulture Dept. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of

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Howard F. Harrison Jr., Chandrasekar S. Kousik, and Amnon Levi

transplanting and watered in with ≈2.5-cm sprinkler irrigation. Individual plants were rated for clomazone injury weekly for 4 weeks for the 2009 experiment and 5 weeks for the 2010 experiments using a scale of 0 to 10 in which 0 = no chlorosis, 3 = ≈30% of

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E. Ryan Harrelson, Greg D. Hoyt, John L. Havlin, and David W. Monks

] and clomazone [2-(2-chlorophenyl) methyl-4, 4-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinone] herbicide at 4.6 L·ha −1 to control weeds. Esfenvalerate [(s)-cyano (3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl (s)-4-chloro-alpha- (1-methylethyl) benzeneacetate] at 0.43 L·ha −1 was applied

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E. Ryan Harrelson, Greg D. Hoyt, John L. Havlin, and David W. Monks

, 4-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinone] herbicides was applied at 4.6 L·ha −1 after planting to control weeds. Esfenvalerate [(s)-cyano (3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl (s)-4-chloro-alpha-(1-methylethyl) benzeneacetate] was applied for insect control at 0.43 L·ha −1

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Guangyao Wang and Mathieu Ngouajio

a.i.: ethalfluralin [N-ethyl-N-(2-methyl-2-propenyl)-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzenamine] and clomazone {2-[(chlorophenyl)methyl]-4,4-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinone} ( Zandstra, 2002 ). Therefore, alternative weed management practices such as