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Jonathan M. Frantz

photoperiod. Seedlings were under a DLI of 8.6 mol·m −2 ·d −1 during this stage. Seeds of zinnia ‘Oklahoma White’ were sown in a similar manner 2 weeks later but received light from sowing until transplant. Two weeks after sowing zinnia and 4 weeks after

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Cynthia B. McKenney, Amber Bates, Kaylee Decker and Ursula K. Schuch

address this need, native accessions of Zinnia grandiflora Nutt. were collected over the past nine years and incorporated into an ornamental breeding program aimed at enhancing the appearance and performance of these plants in landscapes. In addition

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Genhua Niu, Minzi Wang, Denise Rodriguez and Donglin Zhang

or even seasonally in landscapes. Zinnia marylandica is a hybrid between Z. angustifolia and Z. violacea with bright colors and prolific bloom and is resistant to disease, heat, and drought stresses ( Spooner et al., 1991 ). Z. maritima

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John M. Dole, Zenaida Viloria, Frankie L. Fanelli and William Fonteno

’ trachelium, and ‘Sun Gold’ and ‘Benary's Giant Scarlet’ zinnias are established species in the cut flower industry, but the cultivars are new. The lack of information about postharvest handling of the above-listed species and cultivars makes it necessary to

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Daiichiro Miyajima and Masaaki Nakayama

Composition of capitula and their making by florets of zinnia (Zinnia violacea Cav.) were analyzed to improve seed production. For each cultivar, mature capitula were classified into three types based on shape. A capitulum was made of the accumulation of <20 newly opened florets per day for >15 days. The total number of florets per capitulum was 210 to 330, 220 to 290, and 160 to 240 for the two pumila double cultivars Kumamotonokagayaki and Snowball and for the pompon cultivar Purple Zem, respectively. The numbers of tubular florets were negatively correlated with the numbers of ray florets. Ornamentally superior capitula, which were the basic capitulum types for pumila doubles and pompons, had more ray florets and fewer tubular florets than the ornamentally inferior capitulum (the single-flowered type). Results indicate that maintaining a high percentage of plants with double-flowered capitula may decrease seed yield.

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Jonathan M. Frantz, Sushant Khandekar and Scott Leisner

response of two species, a Si accumulator zinnia and a Si non-accumulator snapdragon, to Cu toxicity with and without supplemental Si grown in hydroponics. We examined the a priori hypothesis that supplemental Si would alleviate Cu toxicity symptoms in

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Kevin M. Heinz, Polly A. Harding, Maria Julissa Ek-Ramos, Heather Hernandez, Peter C. Krauter and Gregory A. Sword

of Agriculture, 2016 ). Annual bedding plants contribute the greatest proportion (30.4%) of the total wholesale value ( United States Department of Agriculture, 2016 ). Among bedding plants, marigolds ( Tagetes erecta L.) and zinnia ( Zinnia elegans

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Christy T. Carter and Catherine M. Grieve

nutrients and salts from agricultural runoff that increase the electrical conductivity (EC) of the water ( Carter and Grieve, 2008 ; Carter et al., 2005a ). Zinnia elegans is native to Mexico and is grown commercially as a bedding plant and cut flower

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Kranti Macherla and Richard J. McAvoy

restricted, has not been reported. Therefore, the focus of this research was to determine the effect of NaCl on the growth and nutrient composition of zinnia grown under different subirrigation management regimes. Zinnia elegans , a species previously

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Jerry B. Dudley, Alton J. Pertuit Jr. and Joe E. Toler

The addition of leonardite may increase, or at least maintain, production quality of ornamental plants and permit reductions in fertilizer inputs. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a Utah-mined leonardite on early stages of zinnia (Zinnia elegans Jacq. `Small World Pink') and marigold (Tagetes patula L. `Janie Yellow') growth. The Utah leonardite was characterized by comparing it to the International Humic Substances Society's leonardite standard. Zinnia and marigold seedlings and transplants were grown in sand and 1 sand: 1 peat media (by volume) with leonardite additions of 0%, 3.125%, 6.25%, and 12.5%. Both species showed positive growth responses to 3.125% leonardite in each medium compared to fertilizer alone. Plant responses to increased leonardite additions were generally quadratic, and optimal leonardite levels were estimated. For growing zinnias, optimal conditions were determined to be 7.5% leonardite in a sand medium for seedlings and 8% in a sand-peat mixture for transplants. A sand-peat medium containing 7% leonardite was determined to be optimal for growing marigold seedlings and transplants. Addition of leonardite to growing medium offers promise for reducing fertilizer use during production of some ornamental plants.