of 100 mm·s −1 , and an aperture opening size of 180 μm. The modules were filled with the following substrates: 1) Pumice mixed with Peat and clinoptilolite Zeolite in a volumetric proportion of 65:30:5 (Pum 65 :P 30 :Z 5 ); 2) Pumice mixed with
George Kotsiris, Panayiotis A. Nektarios, and Angeliki T. Paraskevopoulou
Panayiotis A. Nektarios, Ioannis Amountzias, Iro Kokkinou, and Nikolaos Ntoulas
, yard waste (grass clippings and wood chips) and dairy cow, horse, and chicken manure (C), and clinoptinolite zeolite (Z) in a volumetric proportion of 50:20:20:10, respectively (Pum 50 :Per 20 :C 20 :Z 10 , referred as soilless substrate). The second
Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios, Thomais-Evelina Kapsali, Maria-Pinelopi Kaltsidi, Liebao Han, and Shuxia Yin
) Crushed tiles grade 5–8 mm (T 5–8 ), 5–16 mm (T 5–16 ); thermally treated clay (TC); pumice (Pum); and zeolite (Zeo). (B) Crushed brick grade 2–8 mm (B 2–8 ), 2–4 mm (B 2–4 ) and crushed tiles grade 2–4 mm (T 2–4 ), 1–2 mm (T 1–2 ), and 4–22 mm (T 4
Y.L. Qian, A.J. Koski, and R. Welton
Understanding the possible influence of inorganic soil amendments on salt leaching and deposition is helpful in selecting soil amendments when salinity is a problem. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to: 1) evaluate the effects of isolite and zeolite on turf quality of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) under three salinity levels; and 2) determine if soil amendments affected leachate composition, salt deposition, and soil sodium absorption ratio (SAR). `Challenger' Kentucky bluegrass was grown in columns filled with 100% sand, 50 sand: 50 isolite, and 50 sand: 50 zeolite (v/v). Irrigation waters with three levels of salinity [0.25 (control), 3.5, or 6.5 dS·m-1] were applied daily for 3 months in Study I and for 6 months in Study II. Saline water reduced turf quality compared with control. Amendment of sand with isolite increased turf quality only during the third month of treatment with the most saline water in Study I. However, zeolite increased turf quality during both the second and third months at both salinity levels in both studies. The beneficial effects of zeolite on turf quality diminished 5 and 6 months after salinity treatments. Amending sand with zeolite reduced leaching of Na+ and K+, but increased the leaching of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Amending sand with zeolite increased SAR values by 0.9, 1.6, and 6.3 units in Study I and 0.9, 3.6, and 10.9 units in Study II, under control, 3.5, and 6.5 dS·m-1 salinity treatments, respectively. Isolite increased SAR by 1.1-1.6 units with 3.5 dS·m-1 and by 2.5-3.5 units with 6.5 dS·m-1 salinity treatments. Results indicate that amending with zeolite may buffer soil solution Na+ concentration in the short-term. In the long-term, however, a substantial amount of Na+ may be retained concurrent with Ca2+ and Mg2+ exchange, thereby increasing sodicity and salinity problems.
Jianjun Chen, Yingfeng Huang, Zhen Yang, Russell D. Caldwell, and Cynthia A. Robinson
Containerized ornamental plant production represents extremely intensive agricultural production. An average of 200,000 containers may occupy 1 acre of surface area, to which a large amount of chemical fertilizers will be applied. Because of the use of high-drainage soilless potting mixes coupled with excessive fertigation, a great amount of nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, are leached, which increases the potential for ground and surface water contamination. Over the past 2 decades, research has been centered on developing fertigation delivery systems such as nutrient film techniques, ebb-and-flow and capillary mat systems, for reducing leaching. Relatively limited research has been conducted on improving potting medium substrates to minimize nutrient leaching. The objectives of this study were to determine the adsorption isotherm of six different zeolites to ammonium, nitrate and phosphorus, identify and incorporate desired zeolites in a peat/bark-based medium for reducing nutrient leaching in ornamental plant production. Results indicated that the zeolites possess great holding capacities for ammonium, nitrate, and phosphorus. Compared to control, ammonium leaching was reduced 70% to 90%, phosphorus 30% to 80% and nitrate 0% to 60% depending on zeolite species and quantity used per pot. Zeolite amended media caused no adverse effects on plant growth. Conversely, biomass increased significantly when compared to that of the control.
J.L. NUS and S.E. Brauen
In a field experiment, clinoptilolitic zeolite was compared to sphagnum peat and sawdust as sand amendments at 5%, 10%, and 209” (v/v) to enhance `Penncross' creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) establishment and to compare their gravimetric and volumetric cation exchange capacities and their effects on moisture retention and cation exchange capacities of the resultant mixes. In addition, cation exchange capacities and exchangeable K+ and
Cale A. Bigelow, Daniel C. Bowman, and D. Keith Cassel
sand-based rootzones are specified for golf course putting greens because they resist compaction and maintain drainage, even under heavy traffic. Although sands provide favorable physical properties, nutrient retention is generally poor and soluble nutrients like nitrogen (N) are prone to leaching. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate several inorganic soil amendments (clinoptilolite zeolite (CZ), diatomaceous earth, and two porous ceramics), which varied in cation exchange capacity (CEC), and sphagnum peat for their ability to limit N leaching. Columns (35 cm tall × 7.6 cm diameter) were filled with 30 cm of sand-amendment mixtures (8:2 v/v) and NH4NO3 was applied in solution at a N rate of 50 kg·ha-1. Leaching was initiated immediately using 2.5 pore volumes of distilled water in a continuous pulse. Leachate was collected in 0.1 pore volume aliquots and analyzed for NH4 +-N and NO3 --N. All amendments significantly decreased NH4 + leaching from 27% to 88% which was directly proportional to the CEC of the amendments. By contrast, NO3 - losses were consistently high, and no amendment effectively decreased loss compared to nonamended sand. Two amendments with the highest CECs, CZ and a porous ceramic, were selected to further study the effects of amendment incorporation rate, depth, and incubation time on N leaching. Ammonium but not NO3 - leaching was decreased with increasing amendment rate of both products. At 10% amendment (v/v) addition, only 17% to 33% of applied NH4 + leached from the amended sands. Depth of amendment incorporation significantly affected NH4 + leaching, with uniform distribution through the entire 30 cm tall column being more effective than placement within the upper 2.5 or 15 cm. Allowing the NH4NO3 to incubate for 12 or 24 hours following application generally did not affect the amount leached. These results suggest NH4 +-N leaching is inversely related to CEC of the root-zone mixture and that uniform distribution of these CEC enhancing amendments in the root-zone mixtures reduced N leaching to a greater extent than nonuniform distribution.
Timothy K. Broschat
Downy jasmines [Jasminum multiflorum (Burm. f.) Andr.] and areca palms [Dypsis lutescens (H. Wendl.) Beentje & J. Dransf.] were grown in containers filled with a fine sand soil (SS) or with a pine bark-based potting substrate (PS). Each of these substrates was amended with 0%, 10%, or 20% clinoptilolitic zeolite (CZ) by volume. Plants were fertilized monthly with a water-nonsoluble 20N-4.3P-16.6K granular fertilizer. Downy jasmines were larger and had darker color in CZ-amended PS and were larger in CZ-amended SS than in nonamended SS or PS. Areca palms, which tend to be limited by K in SS had better color and larger size when the SS was amended with CZ. In PS, where K is seldom limiting, areca palms did not respond to CZ amendment of the PS. Both ammonium (NH4)-N and potassium (K) were retained against leaching by CZ, but some of the NH4-N adsorbed to CZ was subject to nitrification, either before or after its release into the soil solution. Some phosphate (PO4)-P was also retained by CZ.
Janet L. Carlino, Kimberly A. Williams, and Earl R. Allen
Chrysanthemum [Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] growth and nutrient leaching of three clinoptilolite-based root media—NZ, EZ1, and EZ2—were compared to the performance of control plants grown in Sunshine Mix #2 [3 peat : 1 perlite (v/v)]. The control received 210 mg·L−1 N from an 18N-4P-15K soluble fertilizer at each irrigation. NZ contained untreated zeolite and received the same soluble fertilizer as the control but leached lower concentrations of NH4-N, K, and PO4-P during most of the production cycle compared to the control. EZ1 was formulated to provide N, P, and K as fertilizer nutrients and produced plants similar to the control based on ratings, height, width, and dry mass, but not fresh mass, at harvest when the fertilizer rate was half of that applied to the control—105 mg·L-1N. EZ2 did not receive P or K from soluble fertilizer and produced plants similar to the control based on rating, height, and dry mass, but not width or fresh mass, with soluble fertilizer input reduced to N alone. Tissue N, P, and K concentrations of plants grown in EZ1 and EZ2 were lower than those of control plants. With further refinements, these zeolitebased products show promise for decreasing nutrient leaching during crop production and allowing for application of lower rates of soluble fertilizers.
Kimberly A. Williams and Paul V. Nelson
Most soilless container root media have limited ability to retain nutrients. Zeolites are minerals of substantial cation exchange capacity that can be precharged with K, and possibly PO4, and used as a component of soilless media as a slow-release nutrient source. A zeolite clinoptilolite (Cp) was charged with K and PO4 at two concentrations and combined at 20% of the mix with sphagnum peat (60%) and perlite (20%) to evaluate its use as the sole source of these nutrients during production of Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura `Sunny Mandalay.' Phosphate, K, Na, and pH were determined on unaltered bulk root medium solutions collected over the course of production, and foliar analyses were determined on tissue collected at the middle and end of the crop. All leachate was collected and analyzed to allow for the creation of K and PO4 budgets. Plants that relied on precharged Cp at the low and high rates to meet their K needs and received a N/P/-K fertilizer had similar dry mass and tissue K concentrations as the control plants that received a complete fertilizer. The use of precharged Cp at the low rate reduced K losses through leaching to 23% of the amount lost from control plants receiving water-soluble fertilizer (WSF). Plants that relied on precharged Cp for their PO4 had a lower dry mass and tissue P levels than those of the complete control treatment. However, PO4 concentrations in the root medium solution were above acceptable levels during the first month of production and should be considered when developing a fertilizer application strategy using Cp precharged with PO4.