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Adolfo Rosati, Andrea Paoletti, Giorgio Pannelli, and Franco Famiani

these cultivars exhibit greater branching associated with smaller diameters of trunk, branches, and shoots, resulting in higher yield efficiency and a greater number of fruiting shoots in the small canopy volume allowed in super high-density systems

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Herbert Thompson, J.M. Joshi, R.B. Dadson, and M. Nobaht

Vegetable Soybean Cultivars belonging to MG III thru V were evaluated for their Seed Yield Efficiency (SYE) and Resistance to Heliothis Zea.

This study was conducted in 1968 and 1969. Each entry was planted in a single row plot. Each plot was 5.0 m long and 0.75 m apart in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications.. All entries were evaluated for Seed Yield Efficiency by computing the ratio of seed dry matter wt. to non-seed dry matter wt. and their resistance as the percentage of damage pods.

Preliminary data indicated that cultivars kim and Oakland (MG III), Kingston and Jefferson (MG IV), Pershing and PI 416.467 (MG V) were very high in SYE while Fuji (MG III), Sanga (MG IV) and PI 417.266 (MG V) were observed to have high level of resistance to Heliothis Zea.

We hope that these cultivars could be used as parents for the development of Breeding Program in Vegetable Soybean.

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Malcolm W. Smith, Mark D. Hoult, and Jeremy D. Bright

Low yields and high harvesting costs are long-standing problems in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivation. In an effort to increase productivity in the scion 'Kensington Pride' we examined the impact of nine different rootstocks over a 10-year period. Rootstock effects on fruit production were significant in most seasons, and cumulative yields (nine seasons of cropping) for the best treatment ('Sg. Siput') exceeded those of the poorest treatment ('Sabre') by 141%. Yield efficiencies (expressed on both a trunk cross-sectional area and canopy silhouette area basis) were also significantly affected by rootstock. Rootstock effects on yield and yield efficiency were generally consistent across seasons, despite large seasonal variations in yield. Harvest rates were also influenced by rootstock, and were poorly correlated with tree size. These results demonstrate possibilities for manipulating mango scion productivity through rootstock genotype.

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Fenton E Larsen and Stewart S. Higgins

The influence of 9 rootstock on growth and production of `Goldspur' (GS) and `Wellspur Delicious' (WS), and of 3 rootstock on growth and production of `Red King Delicious' (RK) and `Golden Delicious' (GD) apple was evaluated. The spur-type `Delicious' (WS) produced more fruit per tree than the non-spur (RK) strain with Mailing (M) 7 and Malling-Merton (MM) 106 but not with M 26. GD produced more fruit per tree than GS on M 7 and M 26 but not MM 106. Yield efficiencies were usually superior with spurred strains. Efficiency of RK was markedly inferior to GD and WS. Comparing cumulative yields among 9 stocks within spurred strains showed that highest yields were with MM 106 roots. Clonal stocks were more efficient than seedling. The least size-controlling stocks (seedling, MM 104, MM 109, and M 25) tended to be less efficient than M 2, M 7, M 26, MM 106, or MM 111, but the trends throughout the experiment were not consistent. Seedling, MM 104 and MM 109 had the largest trees with spurred tops, and M 26 the smallest.

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Fenton E Larsen and Stewart S. Higgins

The influence of 9 rootstock on growth and production of `Goldspur' (GS) and `Wellspur Delicious' (WS), and of 3 rootstock on growth and production of `Red King Delicious' (RK) and `Golden Delicious' (GD) apple was evaluated. The spur-type `Delicious' (WS) produced more fruit per tree than the non-spur (RK) strain with Mailing (M) 7 and Malling-Merton (MM) 106 but not with M 26. GD produced more fruit per tree than GS on M 7 and M 26 but not MM 106. Yield efficiencies were usually superior with spurred strains. Efficiency of RK was markedly inferior to GD and WS. Comparing cumulative yields among 9 stocks within spurred strains showed that highest yields were with MM 106 roots. Clonal stocks were more efficient than seedling. The least size-controlling stocks (seedling, MM 104, MM 109, and M 25) tended to be less efficient than M 2, M 7, M 26, MM 106, or MM 111, but the trends throughout the experiment were not consistent. Seedling, MM 104 and MM 109 had the largest trees with spurred tops, and M 26 the smallest.

Open access

Fenton E Larsen and Robert Fritts Jr.

Abstract

The influence of 9 rootstocks on growth and production of ‘Goldspur’ (GS) and ‘Wellspur Delicious’ (WS) and 3 rootstocks on growth and production of ‘Red King Delicious’ (RK) and ‘Golden Delicious’ (GD) apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees was evaluated. The spur-type ‘Delicious’ strain (WS) produced more fruit per tree than the non-spur (RK) strain with Mailing (M) 7 and Malling-Merton (MM) 106 but not with M 26 roots. ‘Golden Delicious’ produced more fruit per tree than GS on all 3 stocks. Yield efficiencies were usually superior with spurred strains. There was a decline in efficiency evident or projected with RK. Comparing cumulative yields after 16 years with 9 stocks within spurred strains showed that highest yields were with MM 106 roots. Yields were influenced by tree spacing, scion type, and rootstock. Clonal rootstocks were more efficient producers than seedling. The least size-controlling stocks (seedling, MM 104, MM 109, and M 25) tended to be less efficient producers than M 2, M 7, M 26, MM 106, or MM 111 in the final year of the experiment, but the differences were not all significant and the trends throughout the experiment were not consistent, partially due to biennial bearing with some stocks. Largest trees with spurred tops were WS, GS/seedling, MM 104, and MM 109, and smallest trees were on M 26. RK/M 7, M 26 were identical in size.

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M. L. Roose, D. A. Cole, D. Atkin, and R. S. Kupper

Abstract

Fruit production and tree size were measured and yield efficiency was computed for 11-year-old trees of ‘Washington’ navel and ‘Olinda Valencia’ oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck], ‘Minneola’ tangelo (C. paradisi Macf. × C. reticulata Blanco), and ‘Lisbon’ lemon (C. limon Burm. f.) on 21 rootstocks in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Performance of most rootstocks was similar over all scions, and several rootstocks produced trees with higher yields than ‘Troyer’ and ‘Carrizo’ citranges [C. sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], the current standard rootstocks. ‘Yuma Ponderosa’ lemon (× C. limon) had the highest yields, but several trees on this rootstock died or were declining. Trees on ‘C-32’ citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata) were largest, and yielded nearly as much as those on ‘Yuma Ponderosa’ lemon. ‘C-35’ citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata) produced smaller trees with excellent yield efficiencies, and should be suitable for higher-density plantings with most scions, except perhaps navel orange, because this combination yielded poorly at other locations. ‘Rangpur’ lime (C. limonia Osbeck) was promising only with lemon scion, and ‘Swingle’ citrumelo (C. paradisi × P. trifoliata) only with ‘Minneola’.

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Gabino H. Reginato, Víctor García de Cortázar, and Terence L. Robinson

orchards, fruit per tree and yield per tree were divided by the fraction of PAR intercepted by the trees ( PAR f ; %) multiplied by the land area assigned to the trees. The resulting crop load or yield efficiency values had units of fruits or kilograms

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Malcolm W. Smith, Jeremy D. Bright, Mark D. Hoult, Richard A. Renfree, Tony Maddern, and Neil Coombes

) examined nine rootstocks under ‘Kensington Pride’ that differed in yield by 141%. Rootstock effects on tree size have been of similar magnitude. Although there is clear evidence that rootstocks can improve yield and yield efficiency in mango, all

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Nicole L. Russo, Terence L. Robinson, Gennaro Fazio, and Herb S. Aldwinckle

., 2001 ; Norelli et al., 2003 ). Geneva® rootstocks exhibit high cumulative yield efficiency in multiple size classes combined with enhanced disease and, in some cases insect, resistance ( Autio et al., 2005a , 2005b ; Cummins and Aldwinckle, 1983