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Ronnie W. Heiniger

New technologies such as differential global positioning systems (DGPS) and geographical information systems (GIS) are making it possible to manage variability in soil properties and the microenvironment within a field. By providing information about where variability occurs and the patterns that exist in crop and soil properties, DGPS and GIS technologies have the potential of improving crop management practices. Yield monitoring systems linked to DGPS receivers are available for several types of horticultural crops and can be used in variety selection and/or improving crop management. Precision soil sampling and remote sensing technologies can be used to scout for infestations of insects, diseases, or weeds, to determine the distribution of soil nutrients, and to monitor produce quality by measuring crop vigor. Combined with variable rate application systems, precision soil sampling and remote sensing can help direct fertilizer, herbicide, pesticide, and/or fungicide applications to only those regions of the field that require soil amendments or are above threshold levels. This could result in less chemical use and improved crop performance. As with any information driven system, the data must be accurate, inexpensive to collect, and, most importantly, must become part of a decision process that results in improvements in crop yield, productivity, and/or environmental stewardship.

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Yiannis G. Ampatzidis and Matthew D. Whiting

fraud ( Ampatzidis, 2010 ; Ampatzidis et al., 2008 ). Various approaches to, and systems for, data collection in orchards such as yield monitoring systems for citrus ( Salehi et al., 2000 ; Schueller et al., 1999 ; Whitney et al., 1999 ), in

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Qamar Uz Zaman, Arnold Walter Schumann, and David Charles Percival

.D. Durrance, J.S. Thomas, D.L. Hill, R.W. Kvien, C.K. Hamrita, T.K. Rains, G. 2001 The peanut yield monitoring system Trans. Amer. Soc. Agr. Eng 44 775 785 Vitharana, U.W.A. van Meirvenne, M. Simpson, D. Cockx, L. de Baerdemaeker, J. 2008 Key soil and