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Aaron G. Anderson, Isabella Messer, and Gail A. Langellotto

were common yarrow ( Achillea millefolium ), pearly everlasting ( Anaphalis margaritacea ), douglas aster ( Symphyotrichum subspicatum ), farewell-to-spring ( Clarkia amoena ), oregon sunshine ( Eriophyllum lanatum ), california poppy ( Eschscholzia

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Anne Marie Johnson and Ted Whitwell

In a study examining the potential for production of a field grown wildflower sod, 29 annual and perennial wildflower species were evaluated. Species selection for the study was based on lack of a large taproot, adaptability to the southeastern climate, flowering period, and potential for surviving root undercutting. Species were individually seeded in 1-m2 plots in Fall 1993 and Spring 1994 to determine an optimum planting time. In early Spring 1994, fall seeded plots were undercut at a 5 cm depth with a hand held sod cutter. Spring planted species were undercut in early summer. After undercutting, sod pieces were placed on clear plastic under overhead irrigation for 7 weeks then transplanted to prepared field sites. Ratings for flower appearance, root mat density, top growth vigor and fresh root weights were taken at the time of undercutting and after transplanting. Fall-planted species had a higher survival rate than spring-planted species. Species with the highest ratings and greatest increase in fresh root weights from the time of undercutting to transplanting were yarrow (Achillea millefolium), oxeye daisy (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), plains coreopsis (Coreopsis tinctoria), blanketflower (Gaillardia aristata), lemon mint (Monarda citriodora), blackeyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta), and moss verbena (Verbena tenuisecta).

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Bruce R. Roberts, Henry F. Decker, Kenneth J. Bagstad, and Kathleen A. Peterson

Two biosolid-containing waste media [sewage sludge compost and incinerated biosolids (flume sand)] were tested individually, together, and in combination with a commercial growing medium for growing wildflower sod in greenhouse trials over a 3-year period. A medium composed of flume sand and Metromix (7:3 weight/weight) in 7.5 {XtimesX} 10.5 {XtimesX} 2-inch deep (19 {XtimesX} 27 {XtimesX} 5-cm) plastic trays seeded at 20 oz/1000ft2 (6.1 g·m-2) with cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus), cornflower (Centaurea cyannis), plains coreopsis (Coreopsis tinctoria), white yarrow (Achillea millefolium) and purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) produced a suitable wildflower sod in 10 to 12 weeks. A single application of slow release fertilizer (Osmocote 14-14-14, 14N-4.2P-11.6K) applied as a top dressing had no significant effect on sod development; however, a 4-mil [0.004-inch (0.10-mm)] polyethylene barrier placed in the base of each container resulted in increased dry weight accumulation and a higher root to shoot ratio relative to sod grown without plastic.

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Derald A. Harp, Cheng Chen, and Curtis Jones

Green roofs provide multiple environmental and economic benefits, such as roof surface temperature reduction, reduced internal cooling needs, storm water management, and extended life span of roofing materials. However, green roof substrates must be relatively lightweight, so it is typically coarse with limited water holding capacity. We hypothesize the physical characteristics that make the substrates successful on a roof are likely to reduce seed germination. For this study, we tested the germination of three perennial species and one annual: shasta daisy (Leucanthemum ×superbum), yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and indian blanket (Gaillardia pulchella), and pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (as a control) across five different substrates: peat/perlite/large expanded shale, compost/sand/expanded shale, compost/black dirt/expanded shale, compost/expanded shale, and peat/perlite (control). Substrate physical and chemical properties were analyzed, and a germination test conducted using a randomized complete block design, with each species/substrate combination appearing once per block. Germination was defined as seedling emergence, and monitored every 7 days for 28 days. Pinto bean had the highest germination (76.2%) across all substrates, compared with 43.4% for indian blanket, 40.4% for yarrow, and 23.0% for shasta daisy. Seed germination, across all species, was lower in green roof substrates. Germination success was very strongly correlated with seed length, seed width, and seed area, while no relationship was found between seed germination and substrate pH or electrical conductivity (EC). Therefore, it is likely that the physical characteristics of green roof substrates create poor conditions for seed germination.

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Ben A. Bergmann, John M. Dole, and Ingram McCall

Increasing cut stem length and reducing crop production time are producers’ goals for numerous cut flower species. One or both of these aims was met in several field-grown cultivars through foliar application of gibberellic acid (GA3), but effectiveness varied by cultivar, application rate, and timing. Of the 13 cultivars tested, stem length was increased in nine cultivars [Toreador Red celosia (Celosia argentea), Camelot White foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), Imperial Giants Pink Perfection larkspur (Larkspur hybrids), Compliment mix lobelia (Lobelia hybrids), Nippon Taka ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum), Amazon Neon Duo and Bouquet Purple sweet william (Dianthus hybrids), Summer Pastels yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and Benary’s Giant Scarlet zinnia (Zinnia elegans)], and time to harvest was decreased in four cultivars [High Tide White ageratum (Ageratum houstonianum), lobelia, ornamental pepper, and zinnia], when GA3 was applied as a foliar spray. Concentrations of 400, 800, and 1600 mg·L−1 GA3 were most effective. Application of GA3 resulted in malformed or smaller flowers or lighter green foliage in foxglove, lobelia, sweet william, and zinnia. In most cases, only one application was tested, and greatest response to GA3 was observed during 3–6 weeks post application. Gibberellic acid did not influence stem length in three cultivars [High Tide White ageratum, Aurora Deep Purple delphinium (Delphinium hybrids), and Column Lilac Lavender stock (Matthiola incana)], and decreased flower stem length in one cultivar (High Tide Blue ageratum). Four cultivars were identified as good candidates for further research given their promising responses to GA3 treatments.

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Anne Marie Johnson and Ted Whitwell

Twenty-nine annual and perennial wildflower species were evaluated for sod development based on ratings for appearance, root mat density, and stability following undercutting and storage and performance after replanting. Species selection was based on the lack of a large taproot, adaptability to the southeastern climate, flowering period, and potential for surviving root undercutting. Species were seeded in fall and spring, and leaf area and root mass samples were compared. Wildflower sod was undercut at a 5 cm (2 in) depth in March (fall-seeded plots) and May (spring-seeded plots) and then stored on clear plastic for 7 weeks and replanted. Fall-planted species had a higher survival rate than spring-planted species. Species selected for sod development were Achillea millefolium L., Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Coreopsis lanceolata L., Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt., Gaillardia aristata Foug., Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag., Rudbeckia hirta L., and Verbena tenuisecta Briq. To reduce damage to aerial growth during harvesting, paclobutrazol, daminozide, and uniconazole were tested on eight greenhouse-grown wildflower species. Uniconazole had limited growth control over Rudbeckia hirta, Monarda citriodora, Coreopsis lanceolata, and Coreopsis tinctoria.

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Thomas Horgan, and S. Marie Rogers

crops were: wormwood, Artemisia absinthium L.; bishop's weed, Ammi majus L.; yarrow, Achillea millefolium L.; alecost, Chrysanthemum balsamita L.; lemon grass, Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) Will. Watson; palmarosa, Cymbopogon martinii

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Mostafa Farajpour, Mohsen Ebrahimi, Amin Baghizadeh, and Mostafa Aalifar

flower oils from Achillea millefolium ssp. elbursensis Hub.-Mor. from Iran rich in chamazulene J. Essent. Oil Res. 18 3 293 295 Judzentiene, A. 2016 Atypical chemical profiles of wild yarrow ( Achillea millefolium L.) essential oils Rec. Nat. Prod. 10

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Katherine F. Garland, Stephanie E. Burnett, Lois B. Stack, and Donglin Zhang

necessary to provide supplemental lighting during the spring production season, particularly for growers in the northeastern United States. For example, minimum DLI recommendations for high light–adapted crops such as yarrow ( Achillea millefolium ), gaura

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Michael D. Richardson, John McCalla, Tina Buxton, and Filippo Lulli

times of the year or potentially fix nitrogen from the atmosphere via the inclusion of species such as white clover ( Trifolium repens ), yarrow ( Achillea millefolium ), yellow bedstraw ( Galium verum ), veronica ( Veronica chamaedrys ), and english