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Stephanie Byard, Michael Wisniewski, Jianhua Li and Dale Karlson

Cornus genus, C. florida and C. sericea differ in their xylem freezing response and highlight differences in geographical range that are based on their mechanisms of cold-hardiness ( Karlson et al., 2004 ). Although the northern distribution of C

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Wanploy Jinagool, Lia Lamacque, Marine Delmas, Sylvain Delzon, Hervé Cochard and Stéphane Herbette

perennials, is a major challenge to ensure crop productivity. According to the cohesion-tension theory, sap flows from root to shoot in vascular plants through xylem conduits under negative pressure ( Dixon and Joly, 1894 ). This negative pressure makes the

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Cheng Bai, Charles C. Reilly and Bruce W. Wood

spring, this N pool, some of which is in soluble proteins that undergo enzymatic hydrolysis, is mobilized and translocated as reduced organic N moving in xylem sap to sinks in the canopy ( Ourry et al., 2001 ). Most of this translocating N is in the form

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Naveen Kumar, Fnu Kiran and Ed Etxeberria

vascular bundles as shown in Fig. 3 . In healthy root samples, merging vascular bundles contained healthy and functional phloem and xylem tissue ( Fig. 3A ). The cells had smooth edges and contained little or no cellular debris. Phloem cells were clearly

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Bruce W. Wood

raises the possibility that simple sugar components within the primordial environment exert a major regulatory role sufficient to influence chromatin-modifying events controlling floral initiation and evocation processes. If so, sugars supplied by xylem

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Renae E. Moran, Bryan J. Peterson, Gennaro Fazio and John Cline

, including reduced shoot growth and small fruit size, also cause economic losses. In addition, repeated injury to xylem can favor invasion of damaged tissues by pathogens, such as wood-rotting fungi ( Quamme et al., 1972 ; Tanino, 2012 ). The full economic

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Hui-qing Li, Qing-he Li, Lei Xing, Gao-jie Sun and Xiu-lian Zhao

classification of the staining intensity may be difficult ( Purcell and Young, 1963 ) and is subjective ( Nesbitt et al., 2002 ). According to Sakai (1955) , freezing injury of twigs first appears as a brown ring at the peripheral layers of the xylem and pith

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Reza Salehi, Abdolkarim Kashi, Jung-Myung Lee, Mesbah Babalar, Mojtaba Delshad, Sang-Gyu Lee and Yun-Chan Huh

calcium ions. Absorption and translocation of other micronutrients such as iron and boron are also influenced by the rootstock ( Rivero et al., 2004 ). Concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium in xylem saps increased in grafted plants

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Thomas O. Athoo, Andreas Winkler and Moritz Knoche

pedicels that remained attached to their fruit (all above NaCl). Pedicel length was standardized to 40 mm by cutting using a razor blade. The cultivar was Frühe Rote Mecklenburger. The number of individual fruit replicates was 10. The vascular system (xylem

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Mingbo Qin, Shanqiang Ke, Abbas Lafta, Murray E. Duysen and Chiwon W. Lee

The relative concentrations of sucrose, glucose, and starch in the xylem and cortex tissues of carrot (Daucus carota) roots were evaluated after harvest and during storage. For the three cultivars (Apache, Bolero, Danvers 126) tested, the cortex tissue contained 76.6, 49.1, and 33.6 mg·g–1 dry weight of sucrose, glucose, and starch, respectively. In comparison, the average contents of sucrose, glucose, and starch in xylem tissues were 57.4, 52.4, and 11.6 mg·g–1 dry weight, respectively. In general, cortex tissue contained higher concentrations of sucrose and starch than the xylem tissues. The glucose concentrations in cortex and xylem were similar. In `Apache', for example, the cortex tissue contained 40% and 57% higher concentrations of sucrose and starch, respectively, than the xylem tissues, whereas glucose content of the cortex was only 7.5% higher than that of the xylem. Since sweetness is largely influenced by sucrose, the relative volume of cortex to xylem must be considered in evaluating carrot cultivars for sweet taste.