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Emilie A.K. Justen, Cynthia Haynes, Ann Marie VanDerZanden and Nancy Grudens-Schuck

., 2004 ). Little information is available about the English-speaking managers of the Latino workforce in the horticultural industry in Iowa. The objective of this study was to determine the educational and training needs of managers of Spanish

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Hannah M. Mathers, Alejandra A. Acuña, Donna R. Long, Bridget K. Behe, Alan W. Hodges, John J. Haydu, Ursula K. Schuch, Susan S. Barton, Jennifer H. Dennis, Brian K. Maynard, Charles R. Hall, Robert McNeil and Thomas Archer

greater than 40% of production costs and 31% of gross sales, innovations with the greatest gain might likely occur in labor use and performance. However, few formal workforce studies have been conducted in this industry. The nine states that participated

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Ann Marie VanDerZanden and Michael Reinert

evaluate the attitudes and perceptions of employers who have recently hired ISU Department of Horticulture graduates in regard to the graduates' preparedness when entering the workforce and their abilities to complete job responsibilities. A majority of the

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Tim D. Davis, Eric M. Bost and Carmen N. Byce

contributes 38% of the country’s GDP and employs more than 60% of the workforce ( World Bank, 2016 ). Despite this, however, Myanmar has only one higher education institution focused on agriculture: Yezin Agricultural University (YAU), located near the capital

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Elizabeth Duncan, Ann Marie VanDerZanden, Cynthia Haynes and Levon Esters

when entering the workforce, the effectiveness of the ISU Department of Horticulture, and the relevance of departmental learner outcomes. The survey questions were developed based on university, college, and departmental curriculum-based learner

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Alan W. Hodges, Charles R. Hall, Marco A. Palma and Hayk Khachatryan

contribution represented 1.11% of the U.S. workforce in 2013 ( Table 5 ). The top five states with the highest percentage contribution to GDP by the green industry were Florida (1.36%), South Carolina (1.13%), Vermont (1.09%), Oregon (1.05%), and Maine (1

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Alejandra Acuna, Hannah Mathers and Pope Jennifer

In 1998, the wholesale nursery industry represented the largest sector in horticultural sales in the United States and 11% of the total value of U.S. agricultural production. The majority of jobs available in the nursery industry are labor intensive. In Ohio, 60% of the nursery workforce is composed of Hispanic laborers. A survey conducted in 2000 targeting Hispanic nursery workers in Oregon and Ohio revealed a great need for basic technical information in their native language. In order to address this issue in Ohio, a Spanish language nursery tour was developed in 2002 and offered annually thereafter. Conducted entirely in Spanish, the tour focuses on basic technical information in the area of field and container production. Tours take place at commercial nursery sites in the Lake County region of Ohio. Demonstrations at the nurseries have highlighted such practices as planting, pruning, and irrigation. Interest in disseminating more technical information in Spanish to the Hispanic workforce has developed as a result of these tours. In Jan. 2005, supervisors of Hispanic nursery workers were surveyed at the Central Environmental Nursery Trade Show (“CENTS”) in Columbus, Ohio, to determine the level of interest in technical education programs for Hispanic employees (65%) and what programs were needed (Safety 16%, Pruning 14%, and English 13%). A multi-state survey in English and Spanish will be conducted over the next two years (2005 and 2006). The goal of this project is to better understand the backgrounds and technical needs of the workers in seven states filling predominantly manual labor positions, in order to help stabilize and engage the workforce through education.

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Ann Marie VanDerZanden

Meeting the needs of changing clientele can be achieved by modifying current extension programs such as the Master Gardener program. In Oregon 90% of the nursery industry workforce is comprised of Hispanics who speak Spanish and have a limited understanding of English. Translating the content of selected chapters from the Oregon-Washington Master Gardener Handbook into Spanish creates a new training tool that can be used throughout the industry. By providing technical training in the basics of plant science, nursery employees will have a better understanding of the work they are doing and gain job satisfaction.

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Stephanie G. Jutila, Mary Hockenberry Meyer and Emily Hoover

Focus groups and surveys were used to align volunteers' work with the mission and organizational objectives of the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum (MLA) at the University of Minnesota. In focus groups, a cross-section of volunteers discussed several issues, including how they could more directly contribute to the mission and organizational objectives of the institution. Staff were surveyed on their perceptions of the volunteer workforce, including their current use of volunteers. Focus groups and surveys proved to be valuable tools to approach programmatic changes in volunteer involvement at the MLA by providing a platform to discuss the areas where change is needed, as well as what kind of change should occur. Focus groups can be a key tool in involving volunteers, by allowing them to provide input on changes that directly affect them, in addition to furthering the understanding of volunteer needs and motivations.

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Christopher J. Currey, Ann Marie VanDerZanden and Joshua J. Mitchell

Food security is a growing global concern. To meet the needs of an ever-growing population, food production practices will need to evolve to maximize food quantity and quality. Controlled-environment food production has increased significantly in the United States over the past 5 years, and a component of that production includes hydroponic food crops. In an effort to better prepare a workforce with knowledge of hydroponic crop production, a new course was added to an existing greenhouse curriculum. A service-learning project was integrated in the course that allowed students to experience both growing crops hydroponically and volunteering at a local food bank with a free meal program. Self-assessment showed a significant increase in student confidence in understanding food security by the end of the course. There was also a significant knowledge gained in defining terminology, factors, and the impact of food security in a community. The three guided reflections students completed during the course identified four common themes relative to the course content and service-learning project including the following: community benefits, value of volunteering, local and global effects of food insecurity, and personal growth.