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Kelly J. Vining, Ryan N. Contreras, Martin Ranik, and Steven H. Strauss

varieties. GE is supported by rapidly expanding science and technology but, to our knowledge, has not led to any commercial releases for woody ornamental plants. We will consider the technical approaches and limitations of both approaches as well as the

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Jonathan M. Lehrer and Mark H. Brand

Web sites such as the University of Connecticut (UConn) Plant Database allow large volumes of information and images to be stored, published and accessed by users for the purpose of informed decision-making. Sorting information on the World Wide Web (Web) can be difficult, especially for novice users and those interested in quick results. The advent of Internet search and retrieval software fosters the creation of interactive decision support systems. The Plant Selector was designed to complement the UConn Plant Database plant encyclopedia by allowing Web site users to generate lists of woody ornamental plants that match specific criteria. On completion of an HTML-based search form by users, a Web-enabled database is searched and lists of matching plants are presented for review. To facilitate analysis of the Plant Selector's efficacy, an online questionnaire was implemented to solicit user feedback. Survey data from 426 responses to the online evaluation tool were analyzed both to understand user demographics and gauge satisfaction with the Plant Selector module. Survey data revealed that most Plant Selector users are between 40 to 65 years of age and homeowners with minimal horticultural experience. A large percentage of Web site visitors (68%) is located across the United States beyond Connecticut and the New England region. The great majority of survey respondents (65%) use this tool to select plants for the home landscape. Most (77%) either agree or strongly agree that the Plant Selector is easy to use and delivers results that are useful (66%), while 70% agree or strongly agree that the categories used by the Plant Selector are sufficient. The survey results in general suggest that Web-based decision support systems may serve useful roles in the field of horticulture education.

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Saâdia Triki, Isabelle Duchesne, and Jacques-André Rioux

Slow-release fertilizers (SRF) are greatly used in container production in addition to an hebdomadal fertigation regime. For economic and environmental motives, growers wish to restrict fertigations. The objectives of this paper are to characterize the release patterns of several SRF and to determine the benefits of these fertilizers on the growth of selected woody ornamental plants. The SRF used in this study were: Osmocote®, Nutricote®, Polyon®, Nutralene® and Woodace®. The two first parts of the study were conducted in a greenhouse in Marsh 1993, with Weigela florida `Rumba' in the first part and without plant in the second one. Fertilizers were top dressed according to a medium suggested concentration. The third part of this study was done in the field in June 1993, with the same fertilizers applied in three concentrations as follow: low suggested concentration (SC), 1.5× SC and 2× SC. Two species were tested in this part, Weigela florida `Rumba' and Spiraea bumalda `Goldflame'. Growth was measured by the height of the plant, the width of canopy and the dry mass of leaves, stems and roots. Samples leachate were collected weekly or monthly for greenhouse and field studies respectively. Leachates were analysed for their mineral content per dry mass of plant tissue and the results will be presented on the poster. In the third study, plants gave a comparable growth with the first and the third fertilizer concentrations.

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Driss Iraqi, Isabelle Duchesne, and Jacques André Rioux

The objective of this study is to determine the phytotoxicity and efficiency of oxadiazon and sethoxydim used as herbicide in the production of four species of woody ornamental plants grown in containers. Four species were used: Cornus alba `Argenteo Marginata', Weigela florida `Rumba', Prunus x cistena and Thuja occidentalis `Woodwardii'. Six herbicide treatments were used (oxadiazon at 0,4 and 8 Kg (a.i.)/ha; sethoxydim at 0.000, 0.276 and 0.552 Kg (a.i.)/ha) and two controls were added (weeding and unweeding). The eight treatments were included in a complete block design replicated six times. This project was started in July 1993 and was conducted for three months. If phytotoxic symptoms were present on plants they were recorded and their effects on growth was measured. At the end of the experiment, weeds present in pots were identified, counted and their growth measured. Preliminary results showed that oxadiazon applied at rates of 4 and 8 Kg (a.i.)/ha had a good efficiency weed control in container production. Sethoxydim applied at rates of 0.276 and 0.552 Kg (a.i.)/ha had a good grass control. The two herbicides did not show phytotoxic symptoms on the for species used. The effects of herbicides on plant growth will be presented.

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Andrew H. Jeffers, William E. Klingeman, Charles R. Hall, Marco A. Palma, David S. Buckley, and Dean A. Kopsell

Ornamental plant growers must be able to accurately assess production costs associated with woody liner stock to gain profit potential in a highly competitive industry. Fixed and variable cost inputs may not be intuitive or readily apparent to growers and may even differ between common types of production in the trade. To help liner producers identify profit-based price points for their woody ornamental liner stock, we modeled costs associated with producing familiar species and cultivars of a representative deciduous shade tree, a broadleaf evergreen, and a needle leaf evergreen liner. Production costs are projected down to individual plant units for each of the three most common liner production systems, including a field ground bed system, a polyhouse-covered (plant protection structure sheathed with one layer of 6-mil polyethylene film) ground bed system, and a polyhouse-covered container system. Production costs for individual plants varied due to the actual growing space available within each system. The field ground bed system offered greatest flexibility in crop planting density, with cost potentially distributed among the largest number of salable units. In addition to modeled costs, advantages and disadvantages of each liner cropping system are discussed.

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C.L. Haynes, O. M. Lindstrom, and M. A. Dirr

The effects of timing of pruning in relation to cold hardiness of X Cupressocyparis leylandii (A. B. Jacks. and Dallim.) Dallim. and A. B. Jacks. `Haggerston Grey' and Lagerstroemia L. `Natchez' were evaluated on 6 test dates from August 1989 to March 1990. Pruning treatments decreased the cold hardiness of both taxa compared to unpruned controls on 5 test dates. Cold tolerance of `Haggerston Grey' decreased for 4 to 5 months following the August and October pruning compared to the unpruned controls. `Haggerston Grey's cold tolerance were reduced by 6C in February. October and December pruning of `Natchez' reduced cold hardiness by 4C in January. However, cold hardiness of January and February pruning treatments was similar to unpruned controls. In general, the data indicated that plants of `Haggerston Grey' pruned in October through February were less cold hardy than plants pruned in August. Ideally, `Natchez' crape myrtle should be pruned in late winter.

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C.L. Haynes, O. M. Lindstrom, and M. A. Dirr

The effects of timing of pruning in relation to cold hardiness of X Cupressocyparis leylandii (A. B. Jacks. and Dallim.) Dallim. and A. B. Jacks. `Haggerston Grey' and Lagerstroemia L. `Natchez' were evaluated on 6 test dates from August 1989 to March 1990. Pruning treatments decreased the cold hardiness of both taxa compared to unpruned controls on 5 test dates. Cold tolerance of `Haggerston Grey' decreased for 4 to 5 months following the August and October pruning compared to the unpruned controls. `Haggerston Grey's cold tolerance were reduced by 6C in February. October and December pruning of `Natchez' reduced cold hardiness by 4C in January. However, cold hardiness of January and February pruning treatments was similar to unpruned controls. In general, the data indicated that plants of `Haggerston Grey' pruned in October through February were less cold hardy than plants pruned in August. Ideally, `Natchez' crape myrtle should be pruned in late winter.

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Mondher Bouden, Jacques-Andre Rioux, and Isabelle Duchesne

Three ornamental species (Spiraea japonica `Little Princess', Physocarpus opulifolius `Nanus', and Prunus × cistena) were potted in seven different substrates. The control substrate contained peatmoss, composted conifer bark, and fine crushed gravel (5:4:1, by volume). In the other six substrates, peatmoss was partially or completely substituted by different proportions of three organic residues (10% or 50% of the mixture made up of fresh bio-filters, 5% or 10% in composted sewage sludges, and 10% or 40% in composted deinking sludges). Four fertilization regimes (0, 200, 400, and 600 mg N/liter in the form of soluble fertilizer 20–20–20) were applied weekly onto containers. The experimental design was a split-plot with six replications. Physical and chemical analysis of the organic residues proved that the composted sewage sludges were richer in minerals than the other residues. Moreover, fresh bio-filters and composted deinking sludges were less granular than composted sewage sludges. The 10% proportion of each organic residue, combined with the other materials, was the most-adequate proportion and did not reduce the growth of plants (height, aerial and root dry matter). In addition, a dose of 400 mg·liter–1 generally gave good results, especially for fresh bio-filters and for composted sewage sludges. However, it is preferable to use a higher dose (600 mg·liter–1 if composted deinking sludges are used.

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Paul E. Cappiello, John F. Wachter, and B. Libby

Accurate assessment of the low-temperature tolerance of woody landscape plants is essential to ensure proper siting and use of specific varieties in the landscape. Laboratory determination of lowest survival temperature (LST) has become a popular area of study in recent years, yet there has been no standardization of technique among the many labs conducting this work. One of the major differences in technique employed across the country is the presence or absence of ice seeding of samples prior to the testing procedure. This presentation will present results of a series of studies conducted to determine the need for and efficacy of ice seeding treatments for LST determination in woody plants. A series of four studies was conducted over a 3-year period to test the difference in LST estimation with and without ice seeding. Twenty-two taxa, including both deciduous and evergreen species, were subjected to controlled freezing at ≈4°C/hr. with test samples removed from the freezer every 3°C. Following a 24-hr thaw and 5 to 7 days of incubation at 21°C, 100% RH, stems were sliced longitudinally and visually assessed for damage to vascular tissues. In the majority of cases, ice seeding was determined to have no significant affect on LST determination. In several species (Kalmia latifolia, Vaccinium angustifolium), the introduction of ice seeding into the protocol resulted in greater variation and less distinct determination of LST.

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Jyotsna Sharma and Jim Rich

Plants infected with Meloidogyne spp. (root-knot nematodes) often are stunted and lose aesthetic value due to chlorosis, wilting, and leaf margin necrosis. We assessed reproduction of three root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica, on five plant taxa native to the southeastern U.S. The plant taxa included were: Hydrangea quercifolia `Oakleaf', Viburnum obovatum `Densa', Itea virginica `Little Henry', Illicium parviflorum, and Clethra alnifolia `Ruby Spice'. Three commonly grown non-native shrubs, Ligustrum japonicum `Texanum', Ilexcrenata `Compacta', and Buxus microphylla `Wintergem', also were included in the study to serve as susceptible, positive controls. Highest gall rating (10) was observed on roots of I. crenata `Compacta' infected with M. incognita, but highest number of eggs (6397 eggs/g of roots) was observed in plants of this cultivar inoculated with M. javanica. Few or no galls were observed on roots of the five native plant taxa, and nematode eggs were recovered only from roots of I. virginica `Little Henry' inoculated with M. arenaria and M. javanica (13 and 20 eggs/g of roots, respectively). Fresh weights of shoots or roots were not affected by nematode inoculation. Due to lack of root gall development and little or no reproduction on the native taxa, we conclude that these are resistant or immune to the three species of Meloidogyne and might be suitable for planting in infested soil.